II. Definitions

  1. Autonomic Nervous System
    1. System of internal regulation for times of both rest (parasympathetic) and stress (sympathetic)

III. Anatomy: General

  1. Central control (especially Hypothalamus and solitary nucleus) based on peripheral visceral afferent signals
  2. Primarily two Neuron pathway
    1. See Preganglionic and Postganglionic Fibers as below
  3. Regulates involuntary actions
    1. Internal organs (e.g. cardiopulmonary and Gastrointestinal Systems)
    2. Glands (e.g. lacrimal, Salivary, sweat)

IV. Anatomy: Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Systems

  1. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Systems typically counter one another with opposing actions
  2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    1. Signals originate in the Sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and Brain Stem nucleii (CN 3, CN 7, CN 9, CN 10)
    2. Energy conserving (anabolic) system activated in rest and relaxation situations
      1. Decreases Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and pupil size (Miosis)
      2. Stimulates gastrointestinal activity, Salivary secretion and urinary contraction
  3. Sympathetic Nervous System
    1. Signals originate in the spinal cord intermediolateral column (T1 to L2)
    2. Energy expending (catabolic) system, activated in stressful situations (e.g. emergency fight or flight)
      1. Increases Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Respiratory Rate and pupil size
      2. Shunts blood flow to critical organs (cardiac and skeletal muscle) from gastrointestinal tract

V. Anatomy: Preganglionic and Postganglionic Fibers

  1. Preganglionic Neuron (CNS to autonomic Ganglion)
    1. Acetylcholine mediated (Cholinergic) in both sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems
  2. Postganglionic Neuron (autonomic Ganglion to target organ)
    1. Parasympathetic System: Acetylcholine mediated (Cholinergic) as with preganglionic fibers
    2. Sympathetic System: Norepinephrine mediated (with exceptions, such as acetylcholine for sweating)

VI. Pathophysiology

VII. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 54-60
  2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 152-4

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic (C0004384)

Definition (NCI) Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.
Definition (CSP) nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D001338
English Autonomic Fiber, Postganglionic, Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic, Fiber, Postganglionic Autonomic, Fibers, Postganglionic Autonomic, postganglionic fiber, Postganglionic Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic Autonomic Fiber
French Fibres nerveuses autonomes postganglionnaires, Fibres nerveuses postganglionnaires autonomes, Fibre neuro-végétative post-ganglionnaire, Fibre neurovégétative postganglionnaire, Fibres neuro-végétatives post-ganglionnaires, Fibres neurovégétatives post-ganglionnaires, Fibres neurovégétatives postganglionnaires, Neurofibres autonomes post-ganglionnaires, Neurofibres autonomes postganglionnaires
Swedish Autonoma postganglionära fibrer
Czech autonomní vlákna postgangliová
Spanish Fibras Autónomas Postganglionares
Finnish Postganglionaariset autonomiset hermosyyt
Russian NERVNOI SISTEMY VEGETATIVNOI POSTGANGLIONARNYE VOLOKNA, НЕРВНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ ВЕГЕТАТИВНОЙ ПОСТГАНГЛИОНАРНЫЕ ВОЛОКНА
Latvian Veģetatīvās nervu sistēmas šķiedras, postganglionārās
Polish Włókna zazwojowe
Norwegian Autonome postganglionære fibre
German Vegetative Fasern, postganglionäre
Italian Fibre postgangliari del sistema autonomo
Dutch Postganglionaire autonome zenuwvezels, Zenuwvezel, autonome, postganglionaire
Portuguese Fibras Autônomas Pós-Ganglionares

Ontology: Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic (C0004385)

Definition (NCI) Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
Definition (CSP) nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D001339
English Autonomic Fiber, Preganglionic, Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic, Fiber, Preganglionic Autonomic, Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic, preganglionic fiber, Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic Fiber
French Fibres nerveuses autonomes préganglionnaires, Fibres nerveuses autonomes pré-ganglionnaires, Fibre neuro-végétative pré-ganglionnaire, Fibres neurovégétatives pré-ganglionnaires, Fibres neurovégétatives préganglionnaires, Neurofibres autonomes pré-ganglionnaires, Neurofibres autonomes préganglionnaires
Swedish Autonoma preganglionära nerver
Czech autonomní vlákna pregangliová
Finnish Preganglionaariset autonomiset hermosyyt
Russian B-VOLOKNA, NERVNOI SISTEMY VEGETATIVNOI VOLOKNA PREGANGLIONARNYE, B-ВОЛОКНА, НЕРВНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ ВЕГЕТАТИВНОЙ ВОЛОКНА ПРЕГАНГЛИОНАРНЫЕ
Latvian Veģetatīvās nervu sistēmas šķiedras, preganglionārās
Polish Włókna przedzwojowe
Norwegian Autonome preganglionære nerver
German Vegetative Fasern, präganglionäre
Italian Fibre pregangliari del sistema autonomo
Dutch Preganglionaire autonome zenuwvezels, Zenuwvezel, autonome, preganglionaire
Portuguese Fibras Autônomas Pré-Ganglionares
Spanish Fibras Autónomas Preganglionares

Ontology: Autonomic nervous system (C0004388)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The part of the nervous system that controls muscles of internal organs (such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs, stomach, and intestines) and glands (such as salivary glands and sweat glands). One part of the autonomic nervous system helps the body rest, relax, and digest food and another part helps a person fight or take flight in an emergency.
Definition (NCI) The part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands.
Definition (MSH) The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Definition (CSP) those neurons which regulate the contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle and the secretion of glands, by way of the general visceral efferent component of cranial and spinal nerves; contains two divisions, parasympathetic and sympathetic which provide double innervation to most organs by way of a two-neuron chain, the first neuron has its cell of origin in the brain or spinal cord and the second in an autonomic ganglion.
Concepts Body System (T022)
MSH D001341
SnomedCT 72167002
English Autonomic Nervous System, Autonomic Nervous Systems, Nervous Systems, Autonomic, System, Autonomic Nervous, Systems, Autonomic Nervous, Nervous System, Autonomic, Autonomic, Visceral nervous system, autonomic nervous system (ANS), visceral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, vegetative nervous system, Systema nervosum autonomicum, Systema nervosum (pars autonomica), ANS, involuntary nervous system, System, Vegetative Nervous, Visceral Nervous Systems, Nervous Systems, Visceral, Vegetative Nervous System, Nervous Systems, Vegetative, System, Visceral Nervous, Visceral Nervous System, Systems, Visceral Nervous, Nervous System, Vegetative, Systems, Vegetative Nervous, Vegetative Nervous Systems, Nervous System, Visceral, Autonomic nervous system structure (body structure), Autonomic nervous system structure, Autonomic nervous system, Autonomic nervous system, NOS
French SNV (Système Nerveux Végétatif), SNA (Système Nerveux Autonome), Système nerveux autonome, Système nerveux végétatif
Swedish Autonoma nervsystemet
Czech autonomní nervový systém, vegetativní nervový systém
Finnish Autonominen hermosto
Russian NERVNAIA SISTEMA VEGETATIVNAIA, НЕРВНАЯ СИСТЕМА ВЕГЕТАТИВНАЯ
Croatian AUTONOMNI ŽIVČANI SUSTAV
Latvian Veģetatīvā nervu sistēma, Nervu sistēma, veģetatīvā
Polish Układ nerwowy autonomiczny, Układ nerwowy wegetatywny
Norwegian Nervesystem, autonome, Autonome nervsystem, Vegetative nervesystem
Spanish estructura del sistema nervioso autónomo (estructura corporal), estructura del sistema nervioso autónomo, sistema nervioso autónomo, Sistema Nervioso Autónomo
German Autonomes Nervensystem, Vegetatives Nervensystem
Italian Sistema nervoso autonomo
Dutch Autonoom zenuwstelsel, Vegetatief zenuwstelsel, Zenuwstelsel, autonoom
Portuguese Sistema Nervoso Autônomo

Ontology: Autonomic Pathways (C0206251)

Definition (MSH) Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D017776
English Autonomic Pathways, Autonomic Pathway, Pathway, Autonomic, Pathways, Autonomic
French Voies neurovégétatives, Voie nerveuse autonome, Voies nerveuses autonomes
Swedish Autonoma nervbanor
Czech autonomní nervové dráhy
Finnish Autonomiset radat
Russian VEGETATIVNOI NERVNOI SISTEMY PROVODIASHCHIE PUTI, VEGETATIVNYKH NERVNYKH VOLOKON PUCHKI, ВЕГЕТАТИВНОЙ НЕРВНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ ПРОВОДЯЩИЕ ПУТИ, ВЕГЕТАТИВНЫХ НЕРВНЫХ ВОЛОКОН ПУЧКИ
Croatian SIMPATIČKI ŽIVCI
Latvian Not Translated[Autonomic Pathways]
Polish Drogi autonomiczne, Szlaki autonomiczne
Norwegian Autonome nervebaner
German Vegetative Leitungsbahnen
Italian Vie del sistema nervoso autonomo
Dutch Autonome baansystemen, Autonome banen, Autonome zenuwbanen, Baan, autonome
Portuguese Vias Autônomas
Spanish Vías Autónomas