Vitamins

Vitamin K

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Vitamin K

  • Indication
  1. Reversal of excessive Anticoagulation with Coumadin
  • Dosing (See Coumadin Protocol)
  1. Routes: IV, IM, SQ, PO
    1. Oral route is preferred in most cases (consistently absorbed with excellent efficacy)
    2. IV route is indicated in life threatening bleeding or intolerance to oral administration
      1. IV route risks anaphylactic reaction (esp. rapid infusion)
    3. Intramuscular Injection (of any medication) is not recommended with supratherapeutic INR
      1. Risk of muscle and extremity injury due to localized bleeding
    4. Subcutaneous administration is not recommended due to unpredictable absorption
  2. INR 4 to 10
    1. Give Vitamin K 1-2 mg orally
    2. Dilute parenteral Vitamin K 1-2 mg in flavored drink
    3. Administer Vitamin K 0.5-1 mg IV if not able orally
  3. INR over 10 without bleeding complications
    1. Vitamin K 3 mg SC or slow IV infusion (over 15-30 min)
    2. Check INR at 6 hours
    3. Consider repeating Vitamin K at 6 hours if unchanged
  4. Serious bleeding complication at any elevated INR
    1. Replace Clotting Factors
      1. Vitamin K 10 mg SC or slow IV infusion
      2. Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) 15 ml/kg
      3. Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC) 50 U/kg
    2. Check INR at 6 hours
  1. Consensus Conference (Dalen) advocates giving
    1. Vitamin K SC/IV for INR > 6
    2. Dalen (1995) Chest 108 (sppl):225S-522S (Consensus) [PubMed]
  2. Retrospective study of 51 Arizona Patients with INR >6
    1. No Vitamin K given in 48 patients, Coumadin stopped
    2. No adverse outcomes or major bleeding
    3. Glover (1995) Chest 108:987-90 [PubMed]
  3. Oral Vitamin K 1 mg acts faster than subcutaneous
    1. Crowther (2002) Ann Intern Med 137:251-4 [PubMed]