II. Epidemiology

III. Causes: Viral Pneumonia

V. Causes: Fungal Pneumonia

VI. Causes: Newborn (birth to 3 weeks)

VIII. Causes: Age 4 months to 5 years

  1. Mixed viral and Bacterial community acquired Pneumonia may account for 30-50% of cases in children
  2. Virus (See Viral Pneumonia)
    1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (common)
    2. Parainfluenza Virus Types 1-3 (common)
    3. Adenovirus
      1. Most common cause of Conjunctivitis
    4. Human Metapneumovirus (common)
      1. Similar presentation to RSV
    5. Influenza Virus Type A (common) and Type B
    6. Rhinovirus
    7. Varicella Zoster Virus
  3. Bacteria (See Bacterial Pneumonia)
    1. Streptococcus Pneumoniae (common)
    2. Chlamydia pneumoniae (common)
    3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (common)
    4. HaemophilusInfluenzae Type B
    5. Moraxella catarrhalis
    6. Staphylococcus aureus
    7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    8. Neisseria Meningitis

IX. Causes: Ages 5 to 18 years

  1. Virus
    1. Adenovirus
    2. Epstein-Barr Virus
    3. Parainfluenza Virus
    4. Adenovirus
      1. Most common cause of Conjunctivitis
    5. Influenza Virus
    6. Rhinovirus
    7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus
    8. Varicella Zoster Virus
  2. Bacteria (See Bacterial Pneumonia)
    1. Streptococcus Pneumoniae (common)
      1. Invasive disease is less common with Prevnar (but still increased risk in day care attendance)
      2. Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcus is more common with antibiotics in the prior 60 days
    2. Staphylococcus aureus
      1. MRSA Pneumonia is increasing in Incidence with higher morbidity and mortality
    3. Atypical Pneumonia
      1. Mycoplasma pneumonia (common)
      2. Chlamydia pneumoniae (common)

X. Causes: Age 18 to 65 years (no comorbidity)

  1. Virus (See Viral Pneumonia)
    1. Parainfluenza Virus
    2. Adenovirus (Most common cause of Conjunctivitis)
    3. Influenza Virus
  2. Bacteria (See Bacterial Pneumonia)
    1. Streptococcus Pneumoniae
      1. Middle aged patients
      2. Super-infection of post-viral Bronchitis
    2. Atypical Pneumonia
      1. Mycoplasma pneumonia (young patients)
      2. Chlamydia pneumoniae

XIV. Causes: Animal Exposure

  1. Bat exposure: Histoplasma capsulatum
  2. Bird Exposure: Psittacosis, Histoplasma capsulatum
  3. Rabbit Exposure: Tularemia
  4. Livestock or cats: Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever)

XVI. Causes: Chronic or refractory Pneumonia

XVII. Causes: Travel

  1. Hotel or cruise ship
    1. Legionella
  2. Middle East:
    1. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
  3. Southeast or East Asia
    1. Avian Influenza
    2. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
  4. Southeast or southcentral U.S.
    1. Blastomyces dermatidis
  5. Southwestern U.S.
    1. Coccidioidomycosis
    2. Hantavirus

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