II. Indications

  1. No improvement after 72 hours of antibiotics for community acquired Pneumonia

III. Causes

  1. Bacteria resistant to current antibiotic spectrum
    1. See Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcus
  2. Empyema or Parapneumonic Effusion
  3. Nosocomial superinfection
  4. Non-infectious cause of Dyspnea or other respiratory symptoms
    1. Pulmonary Embolism
    2. Drug Fever
    3. Bronchiolitis Obliterans organizing Pneumonia
    4. Congestive Heart Failure
    5. Vasculitis
    6. Renal Failure
    7. Myocardial Infarction
  5. Secondary Pneumonia complications
    1. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    2. Aspiration Pneumonia
    3. Endocarditis
    4. Meningitis

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