II. Signs

  1. Hemoptysis
  2. Subcutaneous Emphysema
  3. Tension Pneumothorax
    1. Large, persistent air leak

III. Imaging

  1. Chest XRay (may show irregular mediastinum)
  2. Chest CT

IV. Diagnostics

  1. Esophogram
  2. Bronchoscopy
  3. Arteriogram

V. Associated Conditions

  1. Esophageal Injury
  2. Carotid Artery Injury
  3. Jugular Vein Injury

VI. Precautions

  1. Tracheobronchial injury is associated with very high mortality
  2. Typical injury occurs within 1 inch of the carina
  3. Surgical airway management is critical

VII. Management

  1. Anticipate difficult airway management
  2. Emergent surgical intervention

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