Urology Book

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Struvite Nephrolithiasis

Aka: Struvite Nephrolithiasis, Struvite Stone, Struvite Calculi, Infection Stone, Triple-Phosphate Stone
  1. See Also
    1. Nephrolithiasis
  2. Epidemiology
    1. More common in women
    2. Represents 15-20% of Kidney stones
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Most common cause of staghorn calculi
    2. Components
      1. Magnesium
      2. Ammonium
      3. Calcium Phosphate
  4. Risk Factors
    1. Neurogenic Bladder
    2. Urinary tract foreign body
    3. Urinary Tract Infection with urea-splitting Bacteria
      1. Infection alkalinizes urine (Urine pH>7)
      2. Increases ammonium concentration
      3. Bacterial causes
        1. Proteus mirabilis
        2. Ureaplasma urealyticum
        3. KlebsiellaPneumonia
        4. Pseudomonas
  5. Imaging
    1. Struvite Stones are faintly radiopaque
  6. Complications
    1. Infection (common)
  7. Management
    1. Start antibiotics
      1. High risk of overwhelming Sepsis
    2. Urgent urology Consultation
      1. Surgery delayed until afebrile for 48 hours
    3. Consider acetohydroxamic acid (Lithostat)
      1. Irreversible urease inhibitor
        1. Prevents struvite crystallization
      2. Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis
      3. Indications
        1. Calculus-related severe infections
        2. Patients who are not surgical candidates
  8. References
    1. Mobley (Feb 1999) Hospital Medicine, p. 21-38
    2. Goldfarb (1999) Am Fam Physician 60(8): 2269-76 [PubMed]
    3. Houshiar (1996) Postgrad Med 100(4): 131-8 [PubMed]
    4. Frassetto (2011) Am Fam Physician 84(11): 1234-42 [PubMed]
    5. Pietrow (2006) Am fam Physician 74(1): 86-94 [PubMed]
    6. Preminger (2007) J Urol 178(6): 2418-34 [PubMed]
    7. Portis (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(7):1329-38 [PubMed]
    8. Segura (1997) J Urol 158:1915-21 [PubMed]
    9. Teichman (2004) N Engl J Med 350:684-93 [PubMed]
    10. Trivedi (1996) Postgrad Med, 100(6): 63-78 [PubMed]

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