Urology Book

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Hematuria in Children

Aka: Hematuria in Children, Pediatric Hematuria
  1. See Also
    1. Hematuria in Adults
  2. Epidemiology: Hematuria Incidence
    1. Microscopic Hematuria
      1. School age Hematuria on single sample: 4%
      2. Hematuria on repeat sample: 0.5%
    2. Gross Hematuria
      1. More commonly found in girls
      2. Overall Incidence: 0.13%
  3. Definition
    1. Gross Hematuria
      1. Pink, red or brown color visible to naked eye
      2. Confirm by dipstick and sediment exam
    2. Microscopic Hematuria significant values
      1. Urine Red Blood Cells: 0.5 - 2.4 Million/day
      2. Spun urine: 5-10 Red Blood Cells/hpf (50/ul)
      3. Confirmed on repeat Urinalysis after 1 month
  4. Differential Diagnosis of Gross Hematuria
    1. See Gross Hematuria
  5. Causes (Mneumonic: ABCDEFGHI)
    1. Anatomy
      1. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
      2. Renal Cysts (Simple, Polycystic Kidney Disease)
    2. Boulders
      1. Nephrolithiasis
      2. Hypercalciuria
    3. Cancer
    4. Drugs
    5. Exercise
    6. Fictitious Causes
      1. Munchausen's Syndrome
      2. Betadine contaminant
      3. Brick-Red diaper dumping syndrome
        1. Salmon-red color on diaper may appear to family as Gross Hematuria
        2. Diaper absorbant material reacts with urate crystals in concentrated urine to form color
        3. Benign cause and resolves with hydration
    7. Familial
    8. Foreign Body
    9. Glomerulonephritis
      1. Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
      2. Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)
      3. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
      4. IGA Nephropathy
      5. Alport's Syndrome
    10. Hemoglobinopathies (Sickle Cell Anemia)
    11. Hematologic disorders (Platelet disorders)
    12. Infection
  6. Family History
    1. Renal Failure
      1. Renal transplant
      2. Dialysis
    2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosis
    3. Familial Heamturia
  7. History
    1. Abdominal Pain
    2. Bloody Diarrhea
    3. Arthralgias
    4. Vigorous Exercise
      1. Jogging
      2. Biking
      3. Snow boarding
    5. Child Abuse history
      1. Abdominal, back or flank pain
      2. Bruising
    6. Urinary Tract Infection, cystitis, or Hypercalciuria
      1. Dysuria
      2. Urinary frequency
      3. Suprapubic Pain
    7. Medications
      1. Aspirin
      2. NSAIDs
      3. Antibiotics
      4. Methyldopa
  8. Signs
    1. Blood Pressure
    2. Edema
    3. Skin rash
  9. Labs: Indicated for persistant Hematuria >1 month
    1. Repeat Urinalysis
    2. Urine Culture
    3. Urine Calcium to Creatinine Ratio (normal <0.2-0.25)
    4. Collect 24 hour Urine Collection
      1. Urine Calcium Excretion (normal <4 mg/kg/day)
    5. Urinalysis of a Family Member
    6. Chemistry panel (Chem 10)
      1. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
      2. Creatinine
      3. Serum Electrolytes
      4. Serum Glucose
      5. Serum Calcium
      6. Serum Phosphate
      7. Serum Magnesium
    7. Sickle Cell Screen
    8. Complement level (C3)
    9. Anti-streptolysin O titer (ASO Titer)
    10. Antinuclear Antibody (ANA)
  10. Radiology
    1. Renal Ultrasound
    2. Bladder Ultrasound
    3. Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG)
  11. Diagnostic Studies
    1. Audiogram to assess for Alport's Syndrome
      1. Shows bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  12. Referral Criteria
    1. Concurrent systemic signs
      1. Pain
      2. Fever
      3. Hypertension
      4. Arthritis
    2. Elevated Renal Function testing (BUN, Creatinine)
    3. Coexistant Proteinuria
    4. Episodes of Gross Hematuria
    5. Family History
      1. Glomerulonephritis
      2. Deafness
      3. Renal Failure
      4. Renal Transplant
    6. Parental anxiety
  13. Follow-up
    1. After negative work-up, rescreen urine every 6-12 month
  14. References
    1. Fitzwater (1994) Pediatr Rev, 15:102-9 [PubMed]
    2. Shane (1998) Pediatr Rev, 19(6): 209-12 [PubMed]

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