Surgery Book

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Regional Anesthesia

Aka: Regional Anesthesia, Ultrasound Guided Regional Anesthesia, Regional Block Anesthesia, Nerve Block
  1. See Also
    1. Local Skin Anesthesia
    2. Field Block
    3. Hematoma Block
    4. Digital Block
    5. Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS)
  2. Indications
    1. Regional Anesthesia to allow for procedures (in place of Procedural Sedation)
    2. Severe localized pain control (e.g. Femur Fracture)
  3. Contraindications
    1. Infection overlying injection site
    2. Serial Neurologic Exam required
    3. Patient unable to report pain or Paresthesias at injection site (suggests nerve injection)
      1. Altered Mental Status or Sedation
  4. Types: Face
    1. Regional Anesthesia for the Forehead
      1. Supraorbital Nerve Block
      2. Supratrochlear Nerve Block
    2. Regional Anesthesia for the Central Face
      1. Infraorbital Nerve Block
    3. Regional Anesthesia for the Anterior Mandible
      1. Mental Nerve Block
    4. Lips
      1. Lower Lip Nerve Block
      2. Upper Lip Nerve Block
    5. Teeth
      1. Inferior Alveolar Block
      2. Periapical Block
  5. Types: Arm
    1. Neck and upper chest
      1. Superficial cervical plexus block (anterolateral neck and clavicle)
    2. Upper arm and elbow
      1. Interscalene Brachial Plexus block (includes Shoulder)
      2. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus block (entire arm distal to Shoulder)
    3. Forearm and hand
      1. Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus block (includes elbow)
      2. Axillary Brachial Plexus block
    4. Wrist
      1. Median Nerve Block
      2. Radial Nerve Block
      3. Ulnar Nerve Block
  6. Types: Leg
    1. Hip
      1. Femoral Nerve Block
      2. Fascia Iliaca Block
    2. Lower leg (below knee)
      1. Popliteal nerve (misses part of medial ankle/foot)
    3. Ankle
      1. Regional Anesthesia of the Anterior Ankle
        1. Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block
        2. Deep Peroneal Nerve Block
        3. Saphenous Nerve Block
      2. Regional Anesthesia of the Posterior Ankle
        1. Posterior Tibial Nerve Block
        2. Sural Nerve Block
  7. Complications
    1. Nerve injury with persistent Paresthesias
    2. Local Anesthetic System Toxicity (LAST)
      1. Intravascular injection of anesthetic results in Seizures, arrhythmias or Cardiac Arrest
      2. Highest risk with Bupivicaine (lowest risk with Ropivacaine)
      3. Treated with Intralipid (20% IV fat emulsion) 1.5 ml/kg bolus, then 0.25 ml/kg/min until stable
      4. Airway management and treat Seizures with Benzodiazepines
  8. Exam
    1. Identify region of anesthesia needed (and most appropriate Nerve Block to adequately cover that region)
    2. Focused peripheral nerve exam
      1. Sensory Exam
      2. Motor Exam
  9. Preparation
    1. Informed Consent
    2. Intravenous Access and Intralipid available
      1. See LAST Syndrome under complications
    3. Ultrasound
      1. High frequency linear probe is preferred
      2. Stand-off pad (or copious Ultrasound gel) may be needed in regions where peripheral nerve is superficial
      3. Pre-scan with Ultrasound and identify needle insertion site
        1. Nerve will appear as starry night within annular structure (or honey comb)
        2. Consider marking the insertion site and landmarks
      4. Significantly lowers complication rate (nerve injury, intravascular injection)
      5. Cover probe with sterile Ultrasound probe cover (or transparent dressing such as Tegaderm)
    4. Needles
      1. Blunt tip needles or Tuohy Needles (preferred over cutting needles)
        1. Blunt tip needles allow for better tactile feedback at fascial planes and less risk of nerve injury
      2. Needle sizes
        1. Gauge: 22 to 25
        2. Length: 1.5 to 3 inches
    5. Anesthetic
      1. Mepivicaine 1.5% without Epinephrine
        1. Maximum dose: 5 mg/kg
        2. Onset: 10-20 minutes
        3. Duration: 2 to 3 hours
      2. Lidocaine 2% with Epinephrine
        1. Maximum dose: 4 mg/kg
        2. Onset: 10-20 minutes
        3. Duration: 2 to 5 hours
      3. Bupivicaine 0.5% with Epinephrine
        1. Maximum dose: 2 mg/kg
        2. Onset: 15-30 minutes
        3. Duration: 5-15 hours
    6. Skin preparation
      1. Apply hibiclens or betadine to region of needle insertion site
      2. Drape surrounding skin
  10. Technique: Ultrasound-Guided Block
    1. Ultrasound probe
      1. Prepped with sterile cover as above
      2. Held in non-dominant hand
    2. In-Plane Approach (preferred if anatomy allows)
      1. Needle enters on one side of probe long-axis (parallel to the probe)
      2. Needle may be followed along its entire length
      3. Requires fine control of probe and needle due to narrow width of the Ultrasound beam (3 mm)
    3. Out-Of-Plane Approach
      1. Needle enters at center of probe (perpendicular to the probe)
      2. Requires probe to fan with the needle insertion to follow the distal needle tip
      3. Absolute needle tip may be difficult to distinguish from other positions on the needle shaft
    4. Needle insertion
      1. Gradually advance needle, making slight angle adjustments as approaching target
      2. Advance needle until adjacent but not within the nerve
        1. Slightly withdraw needle if Paresthesias or pain is experienced
    5. Anesthetic injection
      1. Withdraw first to confirm that needle is not intravascular
      2. First inject a small volume of anesthetic adjacent to nerve (visualize on Ultrasound)
        1. Withdraw needle if Paresthesia or pain occurs
        2. Wait to inject at new location until symptoms resolve
      3. Inject at several sites around the nerve
        1. Results in encasing the nerve in a wide ring of fluid
    6. Evaluation of Nerve Block efficacy
      1. Test the region of Nerve Block over the subsequent 10-15 minutes
      2. Wait to initiate procedure until adequate anesthesia achieved
  11. Resources
    1. Local Anesthetics: Clinical Pharmacology and Rational Selection
      1. http://www.nysora.com/regional-anesthesia/foundations-of-ra/3492-local-anesthetics-clinical-pharmacology-and-rational-selection.html
  12. References
    1. Eicken and Rempell (2016) Crit Dec Emerg Med 30(4):3-11

regional block anesthesia (C1304876)

Concepts Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure (T061)
English regional block anesthesia, Regional block anesthesia
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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