Surgery Book

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Local Lidocaine

Aka: Local Lidocaine, Xylocaine, Lidocaine Patch, Lidocaine Local Skin Anesthesia, Buffered Lidocaine
  1. See Also
    1. Local Skin Anesthesia
    2. Digital Block
    3. Lidocaine-Epinephrine-Tetracaine (LET Anesthesia)
    4. EMLA cream
  2. Preparations
    1. Lidocaine 0.5%, 1%, 2%
  3. Pharmacokinetics
    1. Store at room Temperature (not in refrigerator)
      1. Reduces risk of infection with multi-use bottles
      2. Kirschke (2003) Clin Infect Dis 36:1369-73 [PubMed]
    2. Lidocaine alone (1%, 2%)
      1. Onset: 2 to 5 minutes
      2. Duration: 1.5 to 2 hours
      3. Max dose: 4 mg/kg to 280 mg (14 ml 2%, 28 ml 1%)
    3. Lidocaine with Epinephrine 1:100,000 or 1:200,000
      1. Onset: 2 minutes
      2. Duration: 2 to 6 hours
      3. Max dose: 7 mg/kg to 500 mg (25 ml 2%, 50 ml 1%)
      4. Epinephrine increases Lidocaine's duration of action and maximal safe dose (decreases systemic absorption)
  4. Dosing
    1. Intradermal Lidocaine
      1. See maximum dosing above
    2. Lidocaine Patch (indicated in Postherpetic Neuralgia)
      1. Apply to affected area every 4 to 12 hours as needed
  5. Contraindications: Local Lidocaine use
    1. History of allergy to Local Anesthesia
    2. See Local Anesthetic for alternatives if allergy
  6. Contraindications: Combination with local Epinephrine use
    1. Digital Block
    2. Poor vascular supply to an avulsed area
    3. Dirty wound (risk of infection)
    4. Distal organs (relative contraindication)
      1. Previously absolutely contraindicated injection sites: Fingers, Nose, Penis, Toes, Earlobes
      2. More recent data suggests safety (approach as a relative contraindication)
        1. Ilicki (2015) J Emerg Med 49(5):799-809 +PMID: 26254284 [PubMed]
  7. Preparations: Sodium Bicarbonate (Buffered Lidocaine)
    1. Indications
      1. Effective in reducing sting from Local Lidocaine
    2. Dilution 1:10 of 7.5% Sodium Bicarbonate in Xylocaine
    3. Preparation in Syringe (3.5 cc)
      1. Xylocaine: 3 cc
      2. Sodium Bicarbonate: 0.4 cc
    4. Precautions
      1. Shelf-life of Buffered Lidocaine reduced to 1 week
  8. References
    1. Pfenninger (1994) Procedures, Mosby, p. 135-155
    2. Mortiere (1996) Wound Management, p. 27-39
    3. Achar (2002) Am Fam Physician 66(1):91-4 [PubMed]

Xylocaine (C0699094)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D008012
English local anesthetics lidocaine base (Xylocaine), lidocaine base (Xylocaine), xylocaine, Astrazeneca Brand of Lidocaine, Xylocaine
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Lidocaine Transdermal Patch (C1251704)

Definition (NCI) A transdermal patch containing a 5 percent aqueous base solution of the synthetic amide-type anesthetic lidocaine with analgesic activity. Upon topical application and transdermal delivery, the active ingredient lidocaine binds to and blocks voltage-gated sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane; lidocaine-mediated stabilization of neuronal membranes inhibits the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses and produces a reversible local anesthesia.
Concepts Clinical Drug (T200)
English Lidocaine Transdermal Patch, Lidocaine Patch
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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