Surgery Book

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Foot Wound

Aka: Foot Wound, Foot Sore, Foot Ulcer
  1. See Also
    1. Suspected Osteomyelitis in Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Leg Ulcer Causes
    3. Diabetic Foot Ulcer
    4. Pressure Ulcer
    5. Leg Ulcer Causes
  2. Risk factors
    1. See Leg Ulcer Causes
    2. Diabetes Mellitus
    3. Arterial Insufficiency
    4. Venous Insufficiency
    5. Immobility
  3. Grading: Classification Systems for Diabetic Foot Ulcers
    1. Wagner Ulcer Classification
    2. University of Texas Diabetic Wound Classification
  4. Evaluation
    1. See Suspected Osteomyelitis in Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Assess vascular status
      1. Palpate popliteal pulse (should be present)
      2. Palpate pedal pulse
        1. Often absent in diabetic arterial disease
        2. Diabetes selectively affects distal tibial artery
  5. Management
    1. All foot lesions
      1. Reduce pressure on foot lesion
        1. Crutches
        2. Cam-walker (or total contact Casting, other off-loading devices)
        3. Surgical shoe with cushioned insert
        4. Dressings: Foam or felted foam
      2. Optimize comorbid conditions
        1. Control Hypertension
        2. Improve glycemic control
        3. Maximize nutritional status
    2. Closed Foot Sores
      1. Warm water soaks (not hot) for 15 minutes twice daily
        1. Epson salts added to water may be soothing
      2. Hypoallergenic lotion to affected area bid
      3. Cotton socks
    3. Ulcerated wounds
      1. See Wound Cleansing
      2. See Wound Debridement (debride necrotic tissue)
      3. Choose dressing to maintain warm, moist environment
        1. See Wound Dressing (inc. Pressure Sore Dressings)
        2. Hydrocolloid Dressing (avoid if wound infected)
        3. Transparent Film Dressing (avoid if wound infected)
        4. Foam Dressing
        5. Calcium Alginate Dressing
      4. Consider adjuncts to promote Wound Healing
        1. Growth factors (e.g. Becaplermin)
        2. Bioengineered skin grafts (Apligraf, Dermagraft)
    4. Ischemic wounds
      1. Revascularization or Angioplasty
      2. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
        1. Reduces amputations due to Diabetic Foot Ulcers
        2. Roeckl-Wiedmann (2005) Br J Surg 92:24-32 [PubMed]
      3. Vasodilator drugs have not been efficacious
    5. Infected wounds
      1. See Cellulitis for infected diabetic wound management
      2. Findings suggestive of serious infection
        1. Cellulitis involves >2 cm of skin
        2. Deep ulcer
        3. Purulent drainage
        4. Fever
        5. Probe-to-Bone Test positive
          1. See Suspected Osteomyelitis in Diabetes Mellitus
  6. Prevention
    1. See Diabetic Foot Care
  7. Prognosis: Foot Ulcer healing in Diabetes Mellitus
    1. Healing prediction based on 3 criteria (one point each)
      1. Foot Wound present >2 months
      2. Foot Wound >2 cm
      3. Grade 3 or more on Wagner Ulcer Classification
    2. Interpretation: Score of 2 or more
      1. Wound not healed in 79% of patients by 20 weeks
    3. References
      1. Margolis (2003) Am J Med 115:627-31 [PubMed]
  8. References
    1. Frykberg (2002) Am Fam Physician 66(9):1655-62 [PubMed]
    2. Hunt (2002) Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 31(3):603 [PubMed]

Foot Ulcer (C0085119)

Definition (MSH) Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047) , Acquired Abnormality (T020)
MSH D016523, D007871
SnomedCT 201249006, 301020006, 95345008
English Foot Ulcer, Foot Ulcers, Ulcers, Foot, Ulcer, Foot, Foot ulcerations, foot ulcer (physical finding), foot ulcer, ulcer of foot, Ulcer foot, Foot Ulcer [Disease/Finding], foot ulcers, foot ulceration, of foot ulcer, foot ulcerations, ulcer foot, Foot--Ulcers, Ulcus cruris, Foot ulcer, Ulcer of foot, Ulcer of foot (disorder), foot; ulcer, ulcer; foot, Ulcer of foot, NOS
Dutch ulcus cruris, zweer aan voet, voetzweer, ulcus; voet, voet; ulcus, Ulcus, voet-, Voetulcus
French Ulcus cruris, Ulcère du pied
German Ulkus Fuss, Fussulkus, Ulcus cruris, Fußgeschwür
Portuguese Úlcera crural, Úlcera do pé, Úlcera do Pé
Spanish Úlcera en el pie, Úlcera de pie, Úlcera crural, úlcera del pie (trastorno), úlcera del pie, Úlcera del Pie
Japanese 足の潰瘍, アシノカイヨウ, 下腿潰瘍, カタイカイヨウ
Swedish Fotsår
Czech noha - vředy, Vřed nohy, Bércový vřed
Finnish Jalan haavauma
Russian STOPY IAZVA, PODOSHVY STOPY IAZVA, ПОДОШВЫ СТОПЫ ЯЗВА, СТОПЫ ЯЗВА
Croatian Not Translated[Foot Ulcer]
Polish Owrzodzenie stóp
Hungarian Ulcus cruris, Lábfekély, Fekély, láb
Norwegian Fotsår, Sår på foten
Italian Ulcera del piede
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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