Mental Health Book

Alcohol Use Disorders

Hallucinogen Use Disorders

Inhalants

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Alcohol Detoxification in Ambulatory Setting

Aka: Alcohol Detoxification in Ambulatory Setting, Outpatient Alcohol Withdrawal Protocol
  1. See Also
    1. Alcohol Dependence
    2. Alcohol Toxicity
    3. Alcohol Withdrawal
    4. Alcoholism Management
    5. Chemical Dependency
    6. Drug Withdrawal
    7. Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)
  2. Indications
    1. Alcohol Dependence with tolerance and withdrawal risk
  3. Contraindications
    1. Long-term intake of large amounts of Alcohol
    2. Abnormal laboratory findings
    3. Urine Drug Screen positive for other substances
    4. Acute illness
    5. Comorbid illness necessitating inpatient management
      1. Serious cardiopulmonary conditions
      2. Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus
      3. Acute moderate to severe infectious illness
      4. Serious psychiatric illness (e.g. Suicidal Ideation, Psychosis)
    6. Severe Alcohol Withdrawal symptoms (e.g. Stage 3, Delirium Tremens)
    7. Alcohol WithdrawalSeizure history
    8. Unsafe environment
      1. Follow-up and contact difficult
      2. No reliable contact person to monitor patient
    9. Comorbid Benzodiazepine Dependence
    10. Prior failed outpatient detoxification
    11. High risk for Delirium Tremens
      1. See Delirium Tremens for risk factors
  4. Labs
    1. Comprehensive metabolic panel
    2. Complete Blood Count
    3. Urine Drug Screen
    4. Blood Alcohol level
  5. Management: Medications
    1. Benzodiazepines
      1. Administered based on either symptom-triggered protocol or fixed dose protocols (see below)
      2. First-line, long-acting Benzodiazepines
        1. Preferred for self-tapering and less addictive
        2. Diazepam (Valium) 10 mg every 6 hours prn
        3. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) 25-50 mg prn
          1. Preferred agent overall (less stimulation of reward system, lower abuse potential)
          2. Maximum 300 mg/day
          3. Consider during ED evaluation in patients at risk and with early signs of withdrawal
            1. Consider single dose of Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) 50 mg orally
      3. Short-acting agents (higher abuse potential but preferred in elderly, liver dysfunction)
        1. Ativan (Lorazepam) 1-2 mg prn every 6 hours prn
        2. Oxazepam (Serax) 15 mg every 6 hours prn
    2. Benzodiazepine Alternatives (in patients in whom Benzodiazepines are considered too risky)
      1. Carbamazepine
        1. Effective in moderate withdrawal
        2. Dosing: 200 mg four times daily tapered over 5 days
          1. Start at Carbamazepine (Tegretol) 800 mg on day 1
          2. Finish at 200 mg once on day 5
        3. References
          1. Malcolm (2002) J Gen Intern Med 17:349-55 [PubMed]
      2. Gabapentin
        1. Potentiates CNS GABA activity and decreases glutamate activity
          1. Decreases Alcohol craving and depression
        2. Dosing (minimum effective daily dose 900 mg/day)
          1. Start 600 mg three times daily for 3 days
          2. Then 300 mg three times daily for 3 days
        3. References
          1. Stock (2013) Ann Pharmacother 47: 961-9 [PubMed]
          2. Myrick (2009) Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33(9): 1582-8 +PMID:19485969 [PubMed]
    3. Adjunctive medications in all patients
      1. See Alcohol Withdrawal
      2. Vitamin Deficiency is common (Vitamins A, C, B1, B3, B6, B9, B12)
        1. See Alcohol Dependence
      3. Thiamine 100 mg orally daily
      4. Folic Acid 1 mg daily
    4. Adjunctive adrenergic symptom control to consider as needed
      1. Clonidine (Catapress) 0.2 mg twice daily prn
      2. Atenolol (Tenormin) 100 mg daily (50 mg daily for Heart Rate <80 bpm)
        1. Avoid in general, as these mask withdrawal signs
  6. Management: Symptom-Triggered Regimen
    1. Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment (CIWA-Ar)
      1. http://addiction-medicine.org/files/15doc.html
      2. Initially assess four times daily
      3. Assessment done by friend or family member
    2. Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)
      1. Patient completes four times daily
    3. Benzodiazepine dose indication
      1. CIWA-Ar Score >9 points OR
      2. SAWS Score 12 or more
    4. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Protocol (with prn based on indications listed above)
      1. Prescribe Chlordiazepoxide 25 mg tabs (#11-22)
      2. Day 1: Librium 25-50 every 4 hours prn
      3. Day 2: Librium 25-50 every 6 hours prn
      4. Day 3: Librium 25-50 every 6 hours prn
      5. Day 4: Librium 25-50 every 12 hours prn
      6. Day 5: Librium 25-50 every 12 hours prn
    5. Diazepam (Valium) Protocol (with prn based on indications listed above)
      1. Prescribe Diazepam 10 mg tabs (#18)
      2. Day 1: Valium 10 mg every 4 hours prn
      3. Day 2: Valium 10 mg every 6 hours prn
      4. Day 3: Valium 10 mg every 6 hours prn
      5. Day 4: Valium 10 mg every 12 hours prn
      6. Day 5: Valium 10 mg every 12 hours prn
    6. Lorazepam (Ativan) Protocol (with prn based on indications listed above)
      1. Prescribe Lorazepam 1 mg tabs (#15)
      2. Day 1: Ativan 2 mg every 6 hours prn
      3. Day 2: Ativan 2 mg every 6 hours prn
      4. Day 3: Ativan 1 mg every 8 hours prn
      5. Day 4: Ativan 1 mg every 12 hours prn
      6. Day 5: Ativan 1 mg every 12 hours prn
  7. Management: Fixed Dose Protocol
    1. Reduce dosage if over-medication occurs
    2. Monitoring by reliable friend or family member
    3. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Protocol (preferred agent)
      1. Prescribe Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) 25 mg tabs (#11-22)
      2. Option 1
        1. Day 1: Librium 25-50 mg every 6 hours scheduled
        2. Day 2: Librium 25-50 mg every 8 hours scheduled
        3. Day 3: Librium 25-50 mg every 12 hours scheduled
        4. Day 4: Librium 25-50 mg at bedtime scheduled
        5. Day 5: Librium 25-50 mg at bedtime scheduled
      3. Option 2
        1. Day 1: Librium 50 mg every 6-12 hours
        2. Day 2: Librium 25 mg every 6 hours
        3. Day 3: Librium 25 mg every 12 hours
        4. Day 4: Librium 25 mg at night
      4. Option 3
        1. Librium 25-50 mg every 8 hours for 3 days
        2. Consider for emergency department discharge (lower risk)
        3. Patient follow-up with primary care or addiction medicine
    4. Diazepam (Valium) Protocol
      1. Prescribe Diazepam 10 mg tabs (#11)
      2. Day 1: Valium 10 mg every 6 hours scheduled
      3. Day 2: Valium 10 mg every 8 hours scheduled
      4. Day 3: Valium 10 mg every 12 hours scheduled
      5. Day 4: Valium 10 mg at bedtime scheduled
      6. Day 5: Valium 10 mg at bedtime scheduled
    5. Lorazepam (Ativan) Protocol
      1. Prescribe Lorazepam 1 mg tabs (#18)
      2. Day 1: Ativan 2 mg every 8 hours scheduled
      3. Day 2: Ativan 2 mg every 8 hours scheduled
      4. Day 3: Ativan 1 mg every 8 hours scheduled
      5. Day 4: Ativan 1 mg every 12 hours scheduled
      6. Day 5: Ativan 1 mg at bedtime scheduled
  8. Precautions: Medical supervision
    1. Daily medical evaluation when CIWA-Ar >8
      1. Review of Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)
    2. Anticipate 5-7 days of withdrawal
      1. Highest risk of Delirium Tremens at 24-72 hours after stopping Alcohol
      2. Consider prn Benzodiazepine (e.g. Librium 25 mg) every 12 hours on days 6-7
    3. Immediate evaluation (e.g. Emergency Department or prescribing medical provider)
      1. Stage 3 Alcohol Withdrawal (DTs)
      2. Seizures
      3. Fever
      4. Hallucinations
      5. Disorientation
    4. Following acute withdrawal protocol
      1. Refer to long term treatment
      2. Consider prescribing agents to maintain abstinence (e.g. Acomprosate, Naltrexone, Topiramate)
        1. See Alcohol Dependence Management for protocols
  9. References
    1. Orman and Hayes (2015) EM:Rap 15(11): 7-8
    2. Orman and Starr (2015) EM:Rap 15(12): 10-11
    3. Muncie (2013) Am Fam Physician 88(9): 589-95 [PubMed]
    4. Blondell (2005) Am Fam Physician 71:495-510 [PubMed]
    5. Williams (1998) Alcohol 33:103-15 [PubMed]

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