Pharmacology Book

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Beta Carotene

Aka: Beta Carotene, Carotenoid, Lipochrome, Xanthophyll
  1. See Also
    1. Vitamin A
  2. Definitions
    1. Carotenoid
      1. Contained in pigmented vegetables (yellow to red)
      2. Pigments included in Carotenoid group
        1. Beta Carotene
        2. Lycopene (red pigment in tomatoes and berries)
        3. Xanthophyll (yellow pigment with Beta Carotene)
      3. Carotenoids known as Lipochromes once ingested
    2. Lipochromes
      1. Ingested Carotenoids
      2. Concentrate in animal fat
  3. Preparations: Sources of Beta Carotene
    1. Dark green leafy vegetables
      1. Spinach
      2. Chard
    2. Yellow Vegetables
      1. Carrots
      2. Squash
    3. Yellow fruits
      1. Mango
      2. Cantaloupe
  4. Physiology
    1. Beta Carotene is converted to Vitamin A in vivo
  5. Mechanism
    1. Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant effects
  6. Efficacy: Beta Carotene
    1. Does not reduce Cardiovascular disease or Cancer risk
      1. Based on 12 year DBPCT
      2. Experimental group give Beta Carotene 50 mg PO qod
    2. References
      1. Hennekens (1996) N Engl J Med 334:1145-9 [PubMed]
  7. Adverse Effects: Beta Carotene
    1. Increased Incidence of Lung Cancer by 18% in Smokers
      1. DBPCT of Finnish smokers by 20 mg/day
      2. (1994) N Engl J Med 330:1029 [PubMed]
    2. Increased incidence Lung Cancer, CV and total mortality
      1. DBPCT of smokers and Asbestos-exposed workers
      2. Beta Carotene 30 mg and Vitamin A 25,000 IU
      3. GS Omenn (1996) N Engl J Med, 334:1150 [PubMed]
    3. Excessive Carotenoid ingestion
      1. May result in Carotenemia
  8. References
    1. (1988) Dorland's Medical Dictionary, Saunders, p. 276

Carotenoids (C0007271)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A yellow, red, or orange substance found mostly in plants, including carrots, sweet potatoes, dark green leafy vegetables, and many fruits, grains, and oils. Some carotenoids are changed into vitamin A in the body and some are being studied in the prevention of cancer. A carotenoid is a type of antioxidant and a type of provitamin.
Definition (NCI_CRCH) Class of compounds usually consisting of a hydrocarbon chain of 40 carbons, nine conjugated double bonds, and one or two cyclic structures at the ends of the conjugated chain.
Definition (NCI) A class of hydrocarbons (carotenes) and their oxygenated derivatives which exhibit chemopreventive properties. Carotenoids are pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. The pigments are fat-soluble, unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons functioning as provitamins and are converted to vitamin A through enzymatic processes in the intestinal wall.
Definition (MSH) The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Definition (CSP) group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits; they are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D002338
SnomedCT 413767000
English Carotenoids, Carotenes and Carotenoids, Carotenoids [Chemical/Ingredient], carotenoids, Carotenoids (NOS), carotenoid, Carotenoid, Carotinoid (substance), Carotinoid, Carotinoids
Swedish Karotenoider
Czech karotenoidy
Finnish Karotenoidit
Russian KAROTINOIDY, KAROTIN, КАРОТИН, КАРОТИНОИДЫ
Japanese カロチン, カロチノイド炭化水素, カロテン, カロチノイド, カロテノイド
Croatian KAROTINOIDI
Polish Karotenoidy, Prowitamina A, Karoten
Norwegian Not Translated[Carotenoids]
Portuguese Carotenoides
French Caroténoïdes
German Carotinoide, Karotinoide
Italian Carotenoidi
Spanish carotenoide (sustancia), carotenoide, Carotenoides
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Beta Carotene (C0053396)

Definition (NCI_CRCH) Carotenoid consisting of a cyclic structure on each end with additional double bonds at the number 5 and 5' carbon atoms of the cyclic structures.
Definition (NCI) A naturally-occurring retinol (vitamin A) precursor obtained from certain fruits and vegetables with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. As an anti-oxidant, beta carotene inhibits free-radical damage to DNA. This agent also induces cell differentiation and apoptosis of some tumor cell types, particularly in early stages of tumorigenesis, and enhances immune system activity by stimulating the release of natural killer cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes. (NCI04)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A substance found in yellow and orange fruits and vegetables and in dark green, leafy vegetables. The body can make vitamin A from beta carotene. Beta carotene is being studied in the prevention of some types of cancer. It is a type of antioxidant.
Definition (MSH) A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Definition (PDQ) A naturally-occurring retinol (vitamin A) precursor obtained from certain fruits and vegetables with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. As an anti-oxidant, beta carotene inhibits free-radical damage to DNA. This agent also induces cell differentiation and apoptosis of some tumor cell types, particularly in early stages of tumorigenesis, and enhances immune system activity by stimulating the release of natural killer cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Check for "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40992&idtype=1" active clinical trials or "http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40992&idtype=1&closed=1" closed clinical trials using this agent. ("http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C1016" NCI Thesaurus)
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109) , Vitamin (T127)
MSH D019207
SnomedCT 103068006, 329507006, 127385007, 36142007
English beta-carotene, beta-Carotene, Beta Carotene, Betacarotene, Beta-Carot (Obsolete), beta-carotene (medication), vitamins beta-carotene, vitamin A (as beta carotene), beta Carotene [Chemical/Ingredient], BETA CAROTENE, .BETA.-CAROTENE, Carotene, beta, beta Carotene, .beta.-carotene, .Beta.-Carotene, .BETA.-Carotene, Beta-Carotene, betacarotene, Trans-beta-carotene preparation, beta Carotene preparation, beta Carotene (substance), beta Carotene preparation (product), Beta carotene, 3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-1,18-bis(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-octadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaene, CAROTENE, BETA, .beta.-Carotene, Beta-carotene product, Beta-carotene, Provitamin A, beta-Carotene (substance), Beta-carotene product (product), beta carotene, beta Carotene preparation (substance), Beta-carotene product (substance), CAROTENE,BETA
Swedish Betakaroten
Czech beta-karoten
Finnish Beetakaroteeni
Italian Betacarotene, beta Carotene
Russian BETA-KAROTIN, BETACAROTENE, БЕТА-КАРОТИН
Spanish beta - caroteno, betacaroteno, betacaroteno (sustancia), beta - caroteno (sustancia), preparado con beta caroteno (producto), betacaroteno (concepto no activo), preparado con trans-beta-caroteno, preparado con beta caroteno, preparado de beta caroteno (sustancia), producto con betacaroteno (producto), producto con betacaroteno, beta Caroteno, Betacaroteno
Polish Beta-karoten, Betakaroten
Japanese β-カロチン, ベータ-カロテン, β-カロテン, ベタカロチン, ベタカロテン, ベータカロチン, ベータカロテン
French bêta-Carotène, Bêtacarotène
German Beta-Carotin, Betacarotin
Portuguese beta Caroteno, Betacaroteno
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Xanthophylls (C0949636)

Definition (MSH) Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D024341
Swedish Xantofyller
Czech xanthofyly
Finnish Ksantofyllit
Russian KSANTOFILLY, КСАНТОФИЛЛЫ
Japanese キサントフィル類, キサントフィルカロチノール, キサントフィル, カロチノール
English Xanthophylls [Chemical/Ingredient], xanthophyll, xanthophylls, Xanthophylls, Carotenoids, Xanthophyll, Xanthophyll Carotenoids
Polish Ksantofil
French Xanthophylles
German Xanthophylle
Italian Xantofille
Portuguese Xantofilas
Spanish Xantófilas
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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