Orthopedics Book

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Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Aka: Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, Lumbar Canal Stenosis, Lumbar Stenosis, Cauda Equina Pseudoclaudication, Neurogenic Claudication, Pseudoclaudication
  1. Images
    1. LumbarSpineStenosis.gif
  2. See Also
    1. Cervical Spinal Stenosis
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Predisposition with congenitally narrow canal 13 mm
    2. Degenerative condition
      1. Osteoarthritis (most common)
      2. Fluorosis
      3. Hyperparathyroidism
      4. Paget's Disease
      5. Ankylosing Spondylitis
      6. Cushing's Disease
      7. Acromegaly
    3. Resulting changes
      1. Facet joint hypertrophy
      2. Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy
      3. Vertebral degeneration
      4. Intervertebral Herniated disc
      5. Spondylolisthesis
  4. Symptoms: General
    1. Constant back pain (often presenting symptom)
    2. Thigh and leg stiffness
  5. Symptoms: Leg (neurogenic Intermittent Claudication)
    1. Characteristics
      1. Leg Fatigue (dullness) or Leg Weakness
      2. Leg numbness or Paresthesias (tingling sensation)
      3. Bilateral Leg Pain (burning or cramping)
        1. Involves buttocks and thighs
        2. Spreads distally into feet
    2. Provocative
      1. Provoked by lying prone or extending Lumbar Spine
      2. Worse with walking
      3. Not provoked by Bicycle riding
    3. Palliative
      1. Promptly relieved with sitting
    4. Severe symptoms
      1. See Cauda Equina Syndrome
  6. Signs
    1. Complete Neurologic Exam (often normal)
    2. Brief ambulation to elicit leg symptoms
    3. Immediately repeat Neurologic Exam
      1. Lower extremity Sensory Exam changes
      2. Lower extremity Motor Exam changes
    4. Lower extremity vascular exam
      1. Rule-out Vascular Claudication cause
  7. Complications
    1. Cauda Equina Syndrome
  8. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Vascular Claudication
    2. Mass lesions of spine
      1. Conus Medullaris
      2. Cauda equina neoplasm
      3. Benign cystic spinal lesions
        1. Neurofibromatosis
        2. Ependymoma
        3. Hemangioblastoma
        4. Dermoid
        5. Epidermoid
        6. Lipoma
    3. Spine Metastases with nerve compression
    4. Large Central DIsc Herniation
    5. Spondylolisthesis
      1. Degenerative lumbar Vertebra subluxation (L4-5)
    6. Lumbar Spine Trauma or Vertebral Fracture
    7. Epidural Abscess
    8. Inflammatory arachnoiditis
  9. Imaging
    1. L-Spine XRay alternative diagnosis findings
      1. Degenerative spine changes
      2. Occult Spina bifida
      3. Spondylolisthesis
    2. L-Spine MRI findings (preferred)
      1. Loss of epidural fat (T1 weighted images)
      2. Loss of CSF signal at dural sac (T2 weighted images)
      3. Degenerative disc disease
    3. L-Spine CT
      1. Classic "Cloverleaf" or "Trefoil" canal appearance
  10. Management
    1. Neurologic deficits
      1. See Cauda Equina Syndrome
    2. Pseudoclaudication and no neurologic deficits
      1. Mild symptoms
        1. Progressive Exercise
        2. Anesthetic block
          1. Effects last 1 month
        3. Epidural Corticosteroids
          1. No benefit over anesthetic block alone
          2. Fukasaki (1998) Clin J Pain 14:148-51 [PubMed]
          3. Friedly (2014) N Engl J Med 371(1):11-21 [PubMed]
      2. Moderate to severe symptoms
        1. Surgical intervention indications
          1. Time to first symptoms: 2 minutes or less
          2. Total ambulation time: 7 minutes or less
        2. Surgical decompression ro laminectomy
          1. May relieve leg symptoms
          2. Will not relieve back pain
  11. References
    1. Alvarez (1998) Am Fam Physician 57(8): 1825-40 [PubMed]
    2. Arbit (2001) Clin Orthop, 137-43 [PubMed]
    3. Nagler (1998) Postgrad Med 103(4):69-83 [PubMed]
    4. Schonstrom (2001) Radiol Clin North Am 39(1):31-53 [PubMed]
    5. Sheehan (2001) Clin Orthop, 61-74 [PubMed]
    6. Snyder (2004) Am Fam Physician 70:517-20 [PubMed]

Pseudoclaudication syndrome (C0152121)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 19033007
English Pseudoclaudication syndrome, Pseudoclaudication syndrome (disorder)
Spanish síndrome de pseudoclaudicación (trastorno), síndrome de pseudoclaudicación, síndrome de seudoclaudicación
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Spinal stenosis of lumbar region (C0158288)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD10 M48.06
SnomedCT 18347007
Italian Stenosi del canale spinale lombare, Stenosi vertebrale lombare, Stenosi del canale vertebrale lombare
Dutch spinale stenose, regio lumbalis, ruggenmergstenose lumbaal, lumbaal kanaalstenose
French Sténose du rachis lombaire, Sténose rachidienne de la région lombaire, Canal lombaire étroit
German spinale Stenose der Lendengegend, lumbale spinale Stenose
Portuguese Estenose vertebral lombar, Estenose vertebral da região lombar, Estenose raquidiana lombar
Spanish Estenosis espinal en la región lumbar, Estenosis espinal lumbar, estenosis degenerativa del conducto vertebral de la región lumbar, estenosis del conducto raquídeo de la región lumbar, estenosis del conducto vertebral de la región lumbar (trastorno), estenosis degenerativa del conducto raquídeo de la región lumbar, estenosis degenerativa del conducto raquídeo de la región lumbar (trastorno), estenosis del conducto vertebral de la región lumbar, Estenosis espinolumbar
Japanese 腰椎領域の脊柱管狭窄症, ヨウツイリョウイキノセキチュウカンキョウサクショウ, ヨウブセキチュウカンキョウサクショウ, 腰部脊柱管狭窄症
English lumbar canal stenosis, Spinal stenosis lumbar, spinal stenosis of lumbar region (diagnosis), spinal stenosis of lumbar region, Spinal stenosis, lumbar region, Spinal stenosis of lumbar region NOS, spinal stenosis lumbar, lumbar spine stenosis, spinal lumbar stenosis, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar region spinal stenosis, Spinal stenosis of lumbar region, Lumbar spinal stenosis, Spinal stenosis of lumbar region (disorder), Spinal stenosis; lumbar region
Czech Stenóza bederní páteře, Stenóza páteře v bederní oblasti
Hungarian Lumbalis gerinc stenosis, Lumbalis gerinc stenosisa, Gerinc stenosisa a lumbalis régióban
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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