Orthopedics Book

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Thigh-Foot Angle

Aka: Thigh-Foot Angle, Thigh to Foot Angle, Tibial Rotation in Children
  1. See Also
    1. Gait Evaluation in Children
    2. Foot Anatomy
    3. Clubfoot
    4. In-Toeing
    5. Out-toeing
    6. Metatarsus Adductus
    7. Congenital Vertical Talus
    8. Calcaneovalgus Deformity
    9. Pediatric Limp
    10. Torsional Profile
    11. Foot Progression Angle
    12. Hip Rotation Evaluation in Children
  2. Technique
    1. Patient lies prone (infants in crawl position)
    2. Knees flexed 90 degrees off table
    3. Assess angle between femur axis and foot axis
      1. Femur axis: Line along length of femur
      2. Foot axis: Line from heel through third web space
  3. Interpretation: Normal
    1. Age 1: -27 to +20 degrees (mean 0 degrees)
    2. Age 3: -15 to +25 degrees (mean 7 degrees)
    3. Age 5: -5 to +30 degrees (mean 12 degrees)
    4. Age 7: 0 to +30 degrees (mean 18 degrees)
    5. Age 9: 3 to +33 degrees (mean 20 degrees)
  4. Interpretation: Abnormal
    1. Thigh-Foot Angle internal rotation (medial rotation, In-Toeing)> 10 degrees suggests tibial torsion
  5. References
    1. Schmale (2003) AAFP Board Review, Seattle

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