Orthopedics Book

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Pediatric Foot Evaluation

Aka: Pediatric Foot Evaluation, Pediatric Foot Deformity
  1. See Also
    1. Gait Evaluation in Children
    2. Foot Anatomy
    3. Clubfoot
    4. In-Toeing
    5. Out-toeing
    6. Metatarsus Adductus
    7. Congenital Vertical Talus
    8. Calcaneovalgus Deformity
    9. Pediatric Limp
    10. Torsional Profile
    11. Foot Progression Angle
    12. Thigh-Foot Angle
    13. Hip Rotation Evaluation in Children
  2. Exam: Foot
    1. Lateral view
      1. Normal neonatal foot dorsiflexed >90 degrees
      2. Rule-out fixed equinus (Clubfoot) position
        1. Tiptoe walking (foot plantar flexed)
        2. Tight heel cord
    2. Plantar view (footprint shape)
      1. Kidney bean (sole deviated medially)
        1. Metatarsus Adductus
      2. Banana (sole deviated laterally)
        1. Calcaneovalgus Deformity
    3. PA View (from behind, while in neutral position)
      1. Heel varus with inverted foot (medial malleoli apart)
        1. Metatarsus Adductus
      2. Heel valgus with everted foot (medial malleoli touch)
        1. Calcaneovalgus Deformity
    4. Abnormal foot or leg Rotation
      1. See Gait Evaluation in Children
      2. See Torsional Profile
      3. See Foot Progression Angle
      4. See Thigh-Foot Angle
      5. See Hip Rotation Evaluation in Children
  3. Risk Factors: Foot deformity
    1. Intrauterine compression
      1. Multiple Gestation
      2. Uterine malformation/myoma
    2. Uterine compression
      1. Increased uterine muscle tone
      2. Oligohydramnios
      3. Fetal Macrosomia
      4. Non-vertex presentation (e.g. breach presentation)
    3. Extrauterine compression
      1. Small maternal Pelvis
      2. Prominent maternal LS spine
      3. Tight abdominal muscles
    4. Maternal Hypertension (unclear Mechanism)
    5. General fetal hypotonia
      1. Central or peripheral nervous system disease
      2. Congenital muscle disease
    6. Congenital muscle imbalance (Myelomeningocele)
    7. Family History
      1. Clubfoot
      2. Dislocated hip
  4. Associated conditions: Foot Deformities
    1. Arthrogryposis
    2. Brain Tumor
    3. Cerebral Palsy
    4. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
    5. Congenital dislocation of hip
    6. Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
    7. Friedreich's Ataxia
    8. Sacral agenesis
    9. Spina bifida
    10. Sacral Lipoma
    11. Spinal cord tumor
  5. Prevention: Shoe Recommendations for properly fitting shoe
    1. Adequate criteria met by inexpensive shoes
    2. Straight, no inward medial or lateral toe pressure
    3. Broad enough
      1. Toes assume natural, compressed standing position
    4. Reference
      1. Staheli(1980) Pediatrics 65:13-7 [PubMed]
  6. References
    1. Hoppenfeld (1976) Exam. Spine Extremities, p.159-60,223
    2. Churgay (1993) Am Fam Physician 47(4):883 [PubMed]
    3. Rerucha (2017) Am Fam Physician 96(4): 226-33 [PubMed]

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