Neurology Book

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Sympathetic Nervous System

Aka: Sympathetic Nervous System, Sympathetic System, Sympathetic Nerve
  1. See Also
    1. Autonomic Nervous System
    2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    3. Autonomic Dysfunction
    4. Adrenergic Receptor
    5. Alpha Adrenergic Receptor
    6. Adrenergic Receptor
    7. Sympathomimetic Toxicity
  2. Definitions
    1. Sympathetic Nervous System
      1. Part of Autonomic Nervous System with activity that typically counters the Parasympathetic Nervous System
      2. Energy expending (catabolic) system, activated in stressful situations (e.g. emergency fight or flight)
        1. Contrast with the Parasympathetic Nervous System, an energy conserving system activated at times of rest
  3. Physiology: Activity
    1. See Adrenergic Receptor
    2. See Alpha Adrenergic Receptor (alpha 1 and alpha 2)
    3. See Beta Adrenergic Receptor (beta 1 and beta 2)
    4. Increases Heart Rate (chronotropic), heart contraction strength (ionotropic), Blood Pressure
    5. Increases Respiratory Rate and bronchodilation
    6. Increases pupil size or Mydriasis (contrast with Miosis and accommodation by the Parasympathetic System)
    7. Stimulates Salivary VISCOUS secretion (contrast with watery secretion by Parasympathetic System)
    8. Stimulates sweat secretion (via Cholinergic postganglionic fibers)
    9. Decreases gastrointestinal activity and secretion, and contracts gastrointestinal sphincters
    10. Stimulates liver gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis and fat lipolysis
    11. Stimulates Kidney renin release and adrenal medulla Epinephrine release (Cholinergic postganglionic fibers)
    12. Mediates ejaculation (contrast with Erection mediated by Parasympathetic System)
    13. Shunts blood flow to critical organs
      1. Cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle vasodilation (beta-2 receptor)
      2. Skin and gastrointestinal Vasoconstriction (alpha-1 receptor)
  4. Anatomy
    1. Thoracolumbar division of the Autonomic Nervous System
    2. Signals originate in the spinal cord intermediolateral column (T1 to L2)
    3. Transmit to target organs via paravertebral or prevertebral ganglia
  5. Pathophysiology
    1. See Sympathomimetic Toxicity
  6. References
    1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 54-60
    2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 152-4

Sympathetic Nervous System (C0039044)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The part of the nervous system that increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and pupil size. It also causes blood vessels to narrow and decreases digestive juices.
Definition (MSH) The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Definition (CSP) portion of the autonomic nervous system that receives its fibers of connection with the central nervous system through the thoracolumbar outflow of visceral efferent fibers; sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs; the sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e, the fight or flight reactions, and often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Concepts Body System (T022)
MSH D013564
SnomedCT 68365008
English Nervous Systems, Sympathetic, Sympathetic Nervous Systems, System, Sympathetic Nervous, Systems, Sympathetic Nervous, Nervous System, Sympathetic, SNS - Sympathetic nervous syst, SNS - Sympathetic nervous system, Pars sympathica divisionis autonomici systematis nervosi, Sympathetic part of autonomic division of nervous system, Structure of sympathetic nervous system, nervous sympathetic system, nervous system sympathetic, sympathetic nervous system, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathetic nervous system structure (body structure), Sympathetic nervous system structure, Sympathetic nervous system, NOS, Sympathetic Nervous System, SNS
Swedish Sympatiska nervsystemet
Czech sympatický nervový systém
Finnish Sympaattinen hermosto
Russian NERVNAIA SISTEMA SIMPATICHESKAIA, НЕРВНАЯ СИСТЕМА СИМПАТИЧЕСКАЯ
Croatian SIMPATIČKI ŽIVČANI SUSTAV
Latvian Simpātiskā nervu sistēma, Nervu sistēma, simpātiskā
Polish Układ nerwowy adrenergiczny, Układ nerwowy współczulny
Norwegian Sympatiske nervesystem
Spanish estructura del sistema nervioso simpático (estructura corporal), estructura del sistema nervioso simpático, sistema nervioso simpático, Sistema Nervioso Simpático
French Système nerveux orthosympathique, Système nerveux sympathique
German Nervensystem, sympathisches, Sympathisches Nervensystem
Italian Sistema nervoso simpatico
Dutch Sympathisch zenuwstelsel, Zenuwstelsel, sympathisch
Portuguese Sistema Nervoso Simpático
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Sympathetic nerve structure (C0459521)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 90456006
English nerve sympathetic, sympathetic nerve, nerves sympathetic, Sympathetic nerve, Sympathetic nerve structure (body structure), Sympathetic nerve structure, Sympathetic nerve, NOS
Spanish estructura del nervio simpático (estructura corporal), estructura del nervio simpático, nervio simpático
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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