Neonatology Book

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Cephalhematoma

Aka: Cephalhematoma, Cephalohematoma
  1. See also
    1. Birth Trauma
    2. Newborn Head and Neck Exam
    3. Newborn Neurologic Exam
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Incidence: 0.2 to 2.5% of live births
  3. Causes
    1. Prolonged labor
    2. Instrumented delivery (e.g. forceps)
  4. Pathophysiology
    1. Rupture of blood vessels between skull and periosteum
    2. Results in subperiosteal blood collection
    3. Bleeding limited by Suture lines
  5. Signs
    1. Cephalhematoma does not cross Suture lines
    2. Well-demarcated, fluctuant swelling
    3. Most commonly occurs over Parietal Bone
    4. No overlying Skin Discoloration
    5. Appears by day 2-3 of life and may worsen over the first few days
    6. May take months to resolve completely
  6. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Cranial Meningocele (Occipital Cephalhematoma)
      1. Pulsates, and increased pressure on crying
  7. Associated Conditions
    1. Linear Skull Fracture
      1. See Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma
      2. Now rare, but previously accompanied Cephalohematoma in 5 to 20% of cases (likely related to reduced use of forceps)
  8. Complications of severe Cephalhematoma
    1. Hyperbilirubinemia
    2. Meningitis
    3. Osteomyelitis
    4. Intracranial Hemorrhage
      1. Anemia
      2. Hypotension
  9. Radiology
    1. Indications for Skull XRay or CT Head
      1. CNS signs
      2. Large Cephalhematoma
      3. Difficult delivery
    2. Findings
      1. Tangential view of Cephalhematoma
        1. Homogenous soft tissue density
        2. Sharply demarcated convex outer border
        3. Over time border develops fine calcified rim
      2. Skull Fracture may be associated finding
        1. See Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma
  10. Course
    1. Resolves over 2 weeks to 3 months
    2. Residual calcification may occur in 1% of cases
  11. Management
    1. Observation in uncomplicated cases
    2. Significant blood accumulation therapy
      1. Transfusion
      2. Phototherapy
    3. Fracture
      1. See Skull Fracture from Birth Trauma
  12. References
    1. Gabbe (1996) Obstetrics, Churchill-Livingstone, p.661-2
    2. Behrman (2000) Nelson Pediatrics, Saunders, p. 489
    3. Weintraub (2000) Otolaryngol Clin North Am 33:1171-89 [PubMed]

Cephalhematoma due to birth trauma (C0007722)

Definition (NCI_FDA) A subperiosteal hemorrhage limited to the surface of one cranial bone, a usually benign condition seen in the newborn as a result of bone trauma.
Definition (NCI) A subperiosteal hemorrhage limited to the surface of one cranial bone.
Definition (NCI) A subperiosteal hemorrhage limited to the surface of one cranial bone, a usually benign condition seen in the newborn as a result of bone trauma.
Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
ICD10 P12.0
SnomedCT 83095000, 206200000
English Cephalhaematoma due to birth injury, Cephalhematoma due to birth injury, cephalohematoma (diagnosis), cephalohematoma, Cephalhematoma due to birth trauma, Fetal cephalhaematoma, Foetal cephalhaematoma, cephalohaematoma, Fetal Cephalhematoma, Cephalohematoma due to birth trauma, CEPHALOHEMATOMA, Cephalohematoma, Fetal cephalhematoma, Cephalohaematoma, Cephalhaematoma, Cephalhaematoma due to birth trauma, Cephalhematoma, Cephalhematoma due to birth trauma (disorder), Fetal cephalhematoma (disorder), cephalhaematoma, cephalhematoma
Italian Cefaloematoma
French Céphalohématome, Céphalhématome
Portuguese Cefaloematoma, Cefalematoma
Japanese 頭血腫, トウケッシュ
German Kephalhaematom durch Geburtsverletzung, Kephalhaematom
Czech Cefalohematom, Kefalohematom
Korean 출산 손상으로 인한 머리혈종
Hungarian Cephalohaematoma, Cephalhaematoma
Spanish cefalohematoma debido a traumatismo obstétrico (trastorno), cefalohematoma por traumatismo obstétrico (trastorno), cefalohematoma debido a traumatismo obstétrico, cefalohematoma por traumatismo obstétrico, cefalohematoma fetal (trastorno), cefalohematoma fetal, cefalohematoma, Cefalohematoma
Dutch Cefaalhematoom door geboortetrauma, cefaalhematoom
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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