Infectious Disease Book

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Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Aka: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gonococcal Infection, Gonorrhea, Gonococcus, Gonococci, Gonococcemia, Disseminated Gonococcus, Multi-Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhea
  1. See Also
    1. Sexually Transmitted Disease
    2. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Much less common than Chlamydia
    2. Incidence: 500-700,000 cases per year
      1. Decreasing except in inner city, Drug Abuse (crack)
      2. Second most common reportable Sexually Transmitted Disease
    3. Highly contagious: 50% transmission
    4. Chlamydia coexists in 45-50% of patients with Gonorrhea
    5. Most common in young women
      1. Ages 15 to 19 years old
      2. Incarcerated women under age 35 years
  3. Risk Factors
    1. Adults
      1. See Sexually Transmitted Disease
      2. Age <25 years old
      3. Black race
      4. Prior Sexually Transmitted Disease
      5. Drug Abuse
      6. Prostitutes
      7. Men who have Sex with Men
      8. Inconsistent Condom use
      9. Multiple sex partners
    2. Children
      1. Mothers with prior Sexually Transmitted Disease
      2. Mothers with Substance Abuse
      3. Mothers without Prenatal Care
      4. Sexual abuse
      5. No ophthalmic chemoprophylaxis at delivery (Ocular Gonorrhea)
    3. References
      1. (2005) Ann Fam Med 3(3): 263-7 [PubMed]
  4. Pathophysiology
    1. Incubation: 2-7 days
  5. Symptoms and Signs: General
    1. Urinary Symptoms
      1. Urinary frequency
      2. Urinary urgency
      3. Dysuria
    2. Copious Urethral discharge
      1. Green, yellow, or sanguinous discharge
    3. Meatus and anterior Urethra inflammation
    4. Conjunctivitis
      1. Direct inoculation
      2. Copious exudate
      3. Beefy Conjunctiva
      4. Serious complications
        1. Corneal Ulceration or opacification
        2. Visual loss
        3. Globe Perforation
    5. Pharyngitis
      1. Rarely the only site of infection
        1. Accompanies Cervicitis in 10-20% of cases
      2. Usually asymptomatic or only mild in up to 90% of cases
      3. Associated with anterior cervical adenopathy
      4. More common in Men who have Sex with Men, HIV Infection or other STD
    6. Proctitis
      1. Receptive anal intercourse (especially in Men who have Sex with Men)
      2. Mild anal irritation or itching to Rectal Pain
      3. Mucopurulent discharge
      4. Painful Defecation or tenesmus
      5. May cause Acute Diarrhea
  6. Symptoms and Signs: Women (asymptomatic in 95% of cases)
    1. Delayed diagnosis is common with risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease or Disseminated Gonococcus
    2. Mucopurulent Cervicitis (most common presentation)
      1. Onset 5-10 days after exposure
      2. Odorless Vaginal Discharge (observed from os)
      3. Vaginal Bleeding or spotting (may present as Metrorrhagia)
      4. Friable Cervix bleeds easily
    3. Bartholin's gland inflammation
    4. Skene's gland inflammation
  7. Symptoms and Signs: Men (symptomatic in 90% of cases)
    1. Symptom onset within 2-6 days of exposure (may be delayed up to 30 days after exposure)
    2. Dysuria
    3. Epididymitis (unilateral Testicular Pain)
    4. Purulent discharge from Urethra meatus
  8. Symptoms and Signs: Disseminated Gonococcus (rare - occurs in <3% of patients)
    1. High fever may be present (variable)
    2. More common in pregnancy
    3. Dermatitis (75% of cases)
      1. Rash over trunk, extremities, palms and soles
      2. Present as Papules (bullae, Petechiae may be found)
      3. Necrotic Pustule ("gun metal gray") on red base over distal extremity (wrists, palms and soles)
      4. May progress into hemorrhagic Pustules
      5. Usually less than 20 total lesions (typically 3 or less)
    4. Polyarticular Tenosynovitis
      1. Wrists and hands
      2. Ankles and feet
    5. Gonococcal Arthritis
      1. Aseptic joint aspiration does not rule-out Disseminated Gonococcus
    6. Endocarditis (rare)
    7. Meningitis (rare)
  9. Symptoms and Signs: Children
    1. Age >1 year
      1. Nearly always associated with sexual abuse
    2. Age <1 year (esp. day of life 2-5)
      1. Attributed to Vaginal Delivery
      2. Pharyngitis
      3. Neonatal Sepsis
      4. Scalp abscess (associated with fetal scalp electrode)
      5. Meningitis
      6. Arthritis
      7. Neonatal Conjunctivitis (Ophthalmia Neonatorum)
        1. Onset 6 days after exposure
        2. Conjunctival inflammation
        3. Mucopurulent Eye Discharge
        4. Evaluation
          1. Gram Stain of Conjunctival discharge for Gram Negative intracellular diplococci
          2. Gonococcal culture
        5. Prompt management prevents Globe Rupture or blindness
  10. Differential Diagnosis
    1. See Cervicitis
    2. See Vaginitis (or Vaginal Discharge)
    3. See Urethritis
    4. See Neonatal Conjunctivitis
  11. Complications
    1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in 10-20% of cases
    2. Fitz-Hugh Curtis Syndrome (rare)
      1. Perihepatitis syndrome that may present as right upper quadrant pain
    3. Systemic Gonorrhea
    4. Chronic Arthritis
    5. Neonatal Gonorrhea
      1. Gonorrheal Conjunctivitis
    6. Preterm Labor
    7. Endocarditis (rare)
    8. Meningitis (rare)
  12. Labs
    1. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (DNA probe)
      1. Reliable alternative to culture (preferred for screening)
      2. Sample
        1. Men: Urethra or urine
        2. Women: Cervical swab is preferred
      3. Rapid: 30 minutes
      4. Test Sensitivity: 92-96%
      5. Test Specificity: 94-99%
    2. Gram Stain: Urethral or Cervical Smear
      1. Numerous White Blood Cells
      2. Gram Negative biscuit-shaped diplococci
        1. False positive Gram Stain (saprophytic Neisseria)
    3. Gonorrhea Culture and Sensitivity
      1. Culture medium of chocolate agar or Martin-Lewis agar
      2. Required for Disseminated Gonococcus testing
        1. Blood Culture
        2. Throat Culture
        3. Synovial Fluid
  13. Diagnostic Studies
    1. Endoscopy in suspected Gonococcal Diarrhea
      1. Nonspecific findings limited to Rectum
      2. Biopsy and Culture show superficial exudates
  14. Management: Multi-Drug Resistance
    1. Antibiotics that are no longer effective against Gonorrhea
      1. Cefixime or Suprax
        1. Not recommended as of 2012
        2. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6131a3.htm
      2. Ciprofloxacin and other Fluoroquinolones
      3. Penicillins
      4. Sulfanilamide
      5. Tetracyclines (including Doxycycline)
    2. Treatment of Gonorrhea in 2014 is limited to a few agents for dual therapy
      1. See management below
      2. Eradication typically requires Ceftriaxone and either Azithromycin 1 gram or Doxycycline for 7 days
        1. Cefixime resistant strains are often also resistant to Doxycycline
    3. Risk of untreatable Gonorrhea is a real possibility
      1. Men who have Sex with Men have increased Azithromycin and Ceftriaxone MICs
        1. Kirkcaldy (2013) Ann Intern Med 158(5 Pt 1): 321-8 [PubMed]
      2. Gonorrhea treatment failures have exceeded 6% in Toronto, Canada
        1. Allen (2013) 309(2): 163-70 [PubMed]
      3. Rising MICs to all antibiotics against Gonorrhea may be a harbinger of untreatable Gonorrhea
        1. Bolan (2012) N Engl J Med 366(6): 485-7 [PubMed]
    4. Obtain standard cultures in patients returning with possible treatment failures
      1. Gonococcal Culture is required to evaluate for drug resistance and susceptibility
      2. DNA probes can not be used to determine Antibiotic Resistance
    5. References
      1. Glauser (2014) Crit Dec Emerg Med 28(11): 2-10
      2. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep (1995) 44:761-5 [PubMed]
      3. Fox (1997) J Infect Dis 175: 1396-403 [PubMed]
  15. Management: Uncomplicated Gonorrhea
    1. Refer all sexual exposures for treatment
    2. See Pelvic Inflammatory Disease for that protocol
    3. Treat for Chlamydia (30-50% coinfection) if Gonorrhea positive
      1. Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days OR
      2. Azithromycin 1 gram orally for 1 dose
    4. Uncomplicated Gonorrhea in non-pregnant patient
      1. Use Azithromycin 1 gram orally in all cases to treat the Gonorrhea infection (regardless of Chlamydia status)
      2. Second agent (in addition to Azithromycin)
        1. Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM for 1 dose (preferred option)
          1. Cure rate: 99%
          2. Previously dose was 125 mg
        2. Cefotaxime 500 mg IM for 1 dose (not typically used, as Ceftriaxone is the standard treatment)
        3. Spectinomycin 2 g IM for 1 dose (not available in the United States)
      3. Severe Cephalosporin allergy (e.g. Anaphylaxis or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis)
        1. Give Azithromycin 2 grams orally for 1 dose as only medication AND
        2. Recheck for cure in 1 week
        3. Consult infectious disease
      4. Agents to avoid
        1. Cefixime (Suprax) 400 mg orally for 1 dose
          1. Not recommended due to increasing resistance in 2012 (see resistance above)
        2. Quinolones should no longer be used for Gonorrhea in U.S. due to high resistance
          1. (2007) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56(14):332-6 [PubMed]
    5. Uncomplicated Gonorrhea in pregnant patient
      1. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) 250 mg IM
      2. Azithromycin 2 grams PO for 1 dose
        1. Indicated for Cephalosporin resistance
        2. High-dose related GI intolerance is common
        3. One gram dose may not be effective for Gonorrhea
        4. Retest one week later to confirm clearance
      3. Older regimens that are no longer recommended
        1. Combined regimen 1 (not recommended due to Cefixime resistance; see above)
          1. Cefixime 400 mg PO for one dose and
          2. Erythromycin base 500 mg PO tid for 7 days
          3. Retest one week later to confirm clearance
        2. Amoxicillin 3 g PO AND Probenecid 1 gram PO
        3. Spectinomycin 2 g IM (if Penicillin allergic)
          1. High resistance (Cures only 52% of cases)
  16. Management: Non-Genital Gonorrhea
    1. Pharyngeal Gonorrhea
      1. Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM for 1 dose AND
      2. One of the following
        1. Azithromycin 1 gram orally for 1 dose (preferred due to higher resistance with Tetracyclines)
        2. Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days
    2. Conjunctivitis due to Gonorrhea
      1. Ceftriaxone 1 gram IM for 1 dose
    3. Meningitis due to Gonorrhea
      1. Ceftriaxone 1 to 2 grams IV every 12 hours for 10-14 days
    4. Endocarditis due to Gonorrhea
      1. Ceftriaxone 1 to 2 grams IV every 12 hours for 4 weeks or more
  17. Management: Disseminated Gonorrhea
    1. Do not use Quinolones for Gonorrhea in U.S. due to high resistance (see above)
    2. Parenteral Treatment Course
      1. Typical Course: 7 days
      2. Meningitis: 10-14 days
    3. Initial Inpatient dosing until symptoms improve for 24-48 hours
      1. CeftriaxoneSodium 1.0 g (50mg/kg) IV/IM every 24 hours or
      2. CefotaximeSodium 1.0 g (25 mg/kg) IV/IM every 8 hours or
      3. CeftizoximeSodium 1.0 g every 8 hours or
      4. Spectinomycin 2 grams IM every 12 hours
    4. Then followed by outpatient 7 day antibiotic course
      1. Cefuroxime axetil 500 mg twice daily or
      2. Cefixime 400 mg orally twice daily or
      3. Amoxicillin 500 mg twice daily plus Probenecid 1 g/day
  18. Management: Children
    1. Urethral, cervical or pharyngeal
      1. Weight <45 kg
        1. Ceftriaxone 125 mg IM for a single dose
      2. Weight >45 kg
        1. Dose as for adults
    2. Bacteremia or Arthritis
      1. Ceftriaxone 50 mg/kg (up to 1 gram) IV or IM every 24 hours for 7 days
  19. Management: Newborns
    1. Asymptomatic infants born to mothers with untreated Gonorrhea
      1. Ceftriaxone 25-50 mg/kg (up to 250 mg) IV or IM for one dose
    2. Disseminated Gonorrhea or scalp abscess
      1. Ceftriaxone 25-50 mg/kg IV or IM every 24 hours for 7 days OR
      2. Cefotaxime 25-50 mg/kg IV or IM every 12 hours for 7 days
    3. Neonatal Meningitis
      1. Ceftriaxone 25-50 mg/kg IV or IM every 24 hours for 10 to 14 days OR
      2. Cefotaxime 25-50 mg/kg IV or IM every 12 hours for 10 to 14 days
    4. Ophthalmia Neonatorum
      1. Ceftriaxone 25-50 mg/kg (up to 250 mg) IV or IM for one dose
  20. Prevention
    1. Treat sexual partners of positive patients (within prior 60 days)
      1. Consider patient-delivered partner therapy
      2. See Expedited partner therapy (CDC recommendation if legal in practicing state)
        1. http://www.cdc.gov/std/ept
    2. Screen sexually active patients under age 26 years
    3. Consistent Condom use
  21. Follow-up
    1. Test for reinfection at 3-6 months after treatment
    2. Regularly screen for other Sexually Transmitted Disease
  22. References
    1. Apgar (2003) AAFP Board Review, Seattle
    2. Mandell (2000) Infectious Disease, Churchill, p.2249-55
    3. (2000) AAP Redbook p. 254-60
    4. (1998) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47:1-115 [PubMed]
    5. Mayor (2012) Am Fam Physician 86(10): 931-8 [PubMed]
    6. Miller (2000) Am Fam Physician 61(2):379-86 [PubMed]

Gonorrhea (C0018081)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease. It is most common in young adults. The bacteria that cause gonorrhea can infect the genital tract, mouth, or anus. You can get gonorrhea during vaginal, oral, or anal sex with an infected partner. A pregnant woman can pass it to her baby during childbirth.

Gonorrhea does not always cause symptoms. In men, gonorrhea can cause pain when urinating and discharge from the penis. If untreated, it can cause problems with the prostate and testicles.

In women, the early symptoms of gonorrhea often are mild. Later, it can cause bleeding between periods, pain when urinating, and increased discharge from the vagina. If untreated, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which causes problems with pregnancy and infertility.

Your health care provider will diagnose gonorrhea with lab tests. Treatment is with antibiotics. Treating gonorrhea is becoming more difficult because drug-resistant strains are increasing. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading gonorrhea.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Definition (MSHCZE) Častá pohlavní nemoc, jejímž původcem je Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonokok), bakterie velmi citlivá na vnější prostředí. Proto se přenos děje takřka výhradně pohlavním stykem. Příznaky onemocnění se objevují zhruba do týdne. U muže vzniká přední nebo zadní gonokoková (gonoroická) uretritida s možným přestupem na okolní pohlavní orgány. Projevuje se pálením a řezáním při močení a hnisavým výtokem z močové trubice. U žen bývá rovněž postižena uretra, časté je postižení hrdla (cervicitida) s výtokem a erozí na čípku. Dále může být postižena Bartholiniho žláza a jako komplikace přímého šíření může vzniknout adnexitida. Objevuje se výtok z pochvy a zánět probíhá i v oblasti děložního hrdla. Neléčená infekce se šíří i na vnitřní pohlavní orgány (prostatu a nadvarle u muže, na dělohu či vejcovody u ženy), následkem může být neplodnost. Infekcí může být postižen i hltan či konečník při orálním či análním sexu. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) A common sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhea. It is transmitted through vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse. Infected individuals may be asymptomatic. Symptoms in males include burning sensation during urination, discharge from the penis, and painful swelling of the testes. Symptoms in females include painful urination, vaginal discharge, and vaginal bleeding between periods. If untreated, the infection may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease.
Definition (MSH) Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
Definition (CSP) acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract; the etiologic agent is Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D006069
ICD9 098
ICD10 A54, A54.9
SnomedCT 15628003, 186943001, 266142004, 154387008, 187361005
LNC LA10467-1
English Gonorrhea, Gonorrheas, Gonococcal infections, Gonococcal infection, unspecified, Gonococcal infection,unspcf, Gonococcal infections NOS, [X]Gonococcal infection, unspecified, [X]Gonococcal infection,unspcf, Gonorrhea NOS, gonococcal infections, gonococcal infections (diagnosis), Gonorrhoea NOS, Gonorrhea [Disease/Finding], clap, claps, gonorrhea, gonococcal infection, gonorrhoea, gonococcal, Infection due to Neisseria gonorrheae, The clap, Gonococcal infections NOS (disorder), Gonococcal infection (disorder), [X]Gonococcal infection, unspecified (disorder), Gonococcal infection, Infection due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clap, GC - Gonococcus infection, GCI - Gonococcal infection, Gonorrhoea, Gonorrhea (disorder), gonococcal; infection, gonorrhea; specified site not listed, infection; gonococcal, Gonococcal infection, NOS, Gonorrhea, NOS, Gonococcal Infection
Dutch gonokokkeninfecties, gonorroe NAO, gonokokken; infectie, gonorroe; gespecificeerde lokalisatie niet vermeld, infectie; gonokokken, Gonokokkeninfectie, niet gespecificeerd, gonorroe, Gonokokkeninfectie, Gonorroe
French Infections gonococciques, Gonorrhée SAI, Gonorrhée, Blennorragie gonococcique, Blennorragie à Neisseria gonorrhoeae
German Gonokokkeninfektion, Gonorrhoe NNB, Gonokokkeninfektion, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Gonorrhoe, Tripper
Italian Infezione gonococcica, Gonorrea NAS, Gonorrea
Portuguese Gonorreia NE, Infecções gonocócicas, Gonorreia
Spanish Gonorrea NEOM, Infecciones gonocócicas, [X]infección gonocócica, no especificada (trastorno), [X]infección gonocócica, no especificada, infecciones gonocócicas, SAI (trastorno), infecciones gonocócicas, SAI, gonorrea (trastorno), gonorrea, infecciones gonococícas, SAI (trastorno), infecciones gonococícas, SAI, infección gonocócica, infección por Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gonorrea
Japanese 淋疾, 淋菌感染, 淋疾NOS, リンシツ, リンキンカンセン, リンシツNOS
Swedish Gonorré
Czech gonorea, kapavka, Kapavka, Gonokokové infekce, Gonorea, Gonorea NOS, gonorrhoea
Finnish Tippuri
Russian GONOREIA, ГОНОРЕЯ
Korean 상세불명의 임균성 감염, 임균성 감염
Croatian KAPAVAC, GONOREJA
Polish Zakażenie Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Rzeżączka
Hungarian gonorrhoea k.m.n., gonorrhoea, Gonococcalis fertőzések, Gonorrhoea
Norwegian Gonoré
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Neisseria gonorrhoeae (C0027573)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) Any bacterial organism that can be assigned to the species Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Definition (NCI) A species of aerobic, Gram-negative, diplococci shaped bacteria assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria. This species is oxidase and catalase positive, grows best on blood agar medium or chocolate medium, is non-hemolytic, produces acid from glucose, but not from maltose, fructose, sucrose, mannose or lactose, does not synthesize polysaccharides, and reduces nitrite but not nitrate. N. gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea and is transmitted via sexual contact.
Definition (MSH) A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Definition (CSP) species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges; it is the causative agent of gonorrhea.
Concepts Bacterium (T007)
MSH D009344
SnomedCT 68704007
LNC LP14316-1, MTHU004663
English Gonococcus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrheae, N. gonorrhoeae, gonococcus, gonorrhoeae neisseria, neisseria gonorrheae, n. gonorrhoeae, neisseria gonorrhoeae, n gonorrhoeae, gonorrheae neisseria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Zopf 1885) Trevisan 1885, Diplococcus gonorrhoeae, Gonococcus neisseri, Merismopedia gonorrhoeae, Micrococcus der gonorrhoe, Micrococcus gonococcus, Micrococcus gonorrhoeae, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, GC - Gonococcus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (organism)
French Gonococcus, Gonocoque, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Swedish Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Czech Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Finnish Gonokokki
Russian GONOKOKKI, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, ГОНОКОККИ
Spanish Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrheae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (organismo), gonococo, Gonococcus
Italian Gonococco di Neisser, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Polish Dwoinki rzeżączki, Gonokoki, Ziarenkowce rzeżączki, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Japanese ナイセリア・ゴノレエ, 淋菌
Croatian NAJSERIJA GONOREJE, GONOKOK, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE
Norwegian Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gonococcus
German Gonococcus neisseri, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Dutch Gonococcus, Gonococcus neisseri, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Portuguese Gonococo, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Gonococcemia (C0275650)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 186942006, 5085001
English Complicated system gonorrhea, Complicated system gonorrhoea, DGI - Dissem gonococc infectn, Gonococcaemia NOS, Gonococcemia NOS, disseminated gonococcemia (diagnosis), disseminated gonococcemia, gonococcal septicemia, gonococcal septicemia (diagnosis), Gonococcal septicemia, Gonococcemia, Complicated systemic gonorrhea, Complicated systemic gonorrhoea, DGI - Disseminated gonococcal infection, Gonococcal septicaemia, Systemic gonococcal infection, Gonococcaemia, Gonococcemia (disorder), gonococcemia
Spanish gonococemia (trastorno), gonococemia, septicemia gonocócica
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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