Infectious Disease Book

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Antibiotic Resistance

Aka: Antibiotic Resistance, Antibiotic Resistant Infection, Antimicrobial Resistance, Multidrug-Resistant Organism, Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria
  1. See Also
    1. Emerging Infections
    2. Nosocomial Pneumonia
    3. Health Care-Associated Infection
    4. Antibiotic Stewardship
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Health Care Associated Infections are caused by multidrug resistant organisms in 16% of cases (especially MRSA)
  3. Pathophysiology: Factors Affecting Drug Resistance
    1. Antibiotic Overuse
      1. Viral Upper Respiratory Infections
      2. Agricultural antibiotic use
    2. Increasing Incidence of immunocompromised patients
    3. Food supply globalization
  4. Causes: Emerging Drug Resistance
    1. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
    2. Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcus
    3. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
    4. Multi-resistant Gram Negative Bacilli
      1. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae
      2. Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella
      3. Nosocomial outbreaks
      4. Restricted drug use sometimes beneficial
    5. Multi-Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhea
    6. Multi-Resistant Tuberculosis
  5. Prevention
    1. Antibiotic Stewardship
      1. Limit antibiotics to cases in which they are absolutely indicated
    2. Prevent spread
      1. See Health Care-Associated Infection
      2. Practice good hand hygiene before and after seeing each paint
      3. Follow contact precautions for colonized or infected patients
      4. Consider culturing for nasal MRSA in high risk hospital settings (e.g. ICU) and decolonization with Bactroban of infected patients
    3. Decolonization
      1. Chlorhexidine baths daily for intensive care unit patients
  6. Resources
    1. Centers for Disease Control
      1. Patient Education Tools on appropriate antibiotic use
        1. http://www.cdc.gov/antibioticresistance/tools.htm
    2. Patient Education from FamilyDoctor.org
      1. Antibiotic Resistance
        1. http://www.familydoctor.org/handouts/659.html
      2. Antibiotic Indications
        1. http://www.familydoctor.org/handouts/680.html
  7. Reference
    1. (1995) Lecture: M Osterholm, MD, Minneapolis, MN
    2. Hooton (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(6):1087-6 [PubMed]
    3. Hsu (2014) Am Fam Physician 90(6): 377-82 [PubMed]
    4. Sensakovic (2001) Med Clin North Am 85:115-23 [PubMed]

Antibiotic Resistance, Microbial (C0949285)

Definition (NCI) The mechanisms, functions, activities, or processes exhibited by microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to antibiotics.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The mechanisms, functions, activities, or processes exhibited by microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to antibiotics.
Concepts Organism Attribute (T032)
MSH D004352
ICD10 Z16.20
English Antibiotic Resistance, Resistance, Antibiotic, antibiotic resistance, Resistance to antibiotics NOS, ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE, Antibiotic Resistance, Microbial
Czech rezistence na antibiotika
Portuguese Resistência a Antibióticos, Resistência Microbiana a Antibióticos
Spanish Resistencia a Antibióticos, Resistencia Microbiana a Antibióticos
French Résistance microbienne aux antibiotiques, Antibiorésistance, Résistance des microbes aux antibiotiques
German Antibiotikaresistenz, Antibiotikaresistenz, mikrobielle
Croatian OTPORNOST MIKROBA NA ANTIBIOTIKE
Italian Resistenza microbica agli antibiotici, Resistenza agli antibiotici
Dutch Geneesmiddelenresistentie, microbiële
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Antimicrobial Resistance (C1456627)

Concepts Clinical Attribute (T201)
English Antimicrobial Resistance
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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