Human Immunodeficiency Virus Book

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HIV Transmission

Aka: HIV Transmission, HIV Transmission Prevention
  1. See Also
    1. HIV Exposure
  2. Transmission
    1. HIV is passed via cellular fluids
      1. Sexual intercourse
      2. Blood exposure
      3. Breast Milk
    2. HIV is present in other fluids, but not transmitted
      1. Urine
      2. Feces
      3. Sweat
      4. Sputum or Saliva
      5. Tears
    3. Transmission is potentiated by other factors
      1. Concurrent other Sexually Transmitted Disease
      2. Menses
  3. Prevention: Sexual behaviors
    1. General
      1. Safest behavior is abstinence
      2. If not abstinent, then practice monogamy
      3. If not monogamous, then limit number of partners
    2. Preventive strategies
      1. Disclose your HIV status to all sexual partners
      2. Always use Condoms (reduces transmission risk by 80-95%)
      3. Consider Male Circumcision if uncircumsized (reduces transmission risk by 50-80%)
      4. Avoid behaviors that cause mucosal Trauma
      5. No sex unless sober
  4. Prevention: Intravenous Drug Abuse
    1. Strongly consider drug rehabilitation program
    2. Do not share needles
    3. Use new needles (bleach needles if not new)
  5. Prevention: Household measures
    1. HIV is not spread by casual contact
    2. However, precautions are recommended:
      1. Apply bleach to blood spills
      2. Do not share ToothBrushes or razors
  6. Prevention: Medical Care
    1. Treat comorbid Sexually Transmitted Disease
      1. STDs facilitate HIV Transmission
    2. Early diagnosis and treatment of HIV
      1. Antiretrovirals dramatically lower transmission risk
        1. Prenatal HIV diagnosis and treatment is critical
        2. Sexual partners also benefit from lower risk
      2. Transmission still occurs at undetectable viral load
  7. References
    1. (2003) MMWR Recomm Rep 52:1-24 [PubMed]

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