Human Immunodeficiency Virus Book

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HIV Enzyme Immunoassay

Aka: HIV Enzyme Immunoassay, HIV ELISA, HIV EIA, HIV-1/HIV-2 EIA Antibody Test
  1. Indication
    1. Initial HIV Screening Test (typically combined with p24 antigen testing)
  2. Efficacy
    1. Highly sensitive and specific (>99%)
    2. Now in fourth generation testing
      1. Typically positive by 21 days (<17 days when combined with p24 antigen testing)
      2. Prior, first generation tests were positive after 60 days (8-9 weeks)
  3. Precautions
    1. High False Positive Rate in low risk groups (especially with p24 antigen testing)
    2. Never tell anyone they are HIV positive based on EIA
      1. Confirm with HIV Western Blot
  4. References
    1. Sherin (2014) Am Fam Physician 89(4): 265-72 [PubMed]

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