Human Immunodeficiency Virus Book

http://www.fpnotebook.com/

Mycobacterium Avium Complex

Aka: Mycobacterium Avium Complex, Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare
  1. Epidemiology
    1. Disseminated MAC infection: 40% of North American AIDS
    2. Most common reported HIV Bacterial Infection
    3. Normal Children may develop Lymphadenitis
      1. Occurs under age 5 years
      2. Rarely affects children over age 12 years
  2. Pathophysiology
    1. MAC is ubiquitous in environment (water, soil, food)
    2. Causes Tuberculosis in birds and swine
    3. Colonization by respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
    4. Rarely occurs if CD4 Count >50
    5. Infection in normal children
      1. Breaks in mucus membrane
      2. Tooth Eruption
  3. Symptoms
    1. Fever
    2. Fatigue
    3. Night Sweats
    4. Wasting
    5. Gastrointestinal upset
  4. Signs: Normal Children with Lymphadenitis
    1. Chronic unilateral, firm or fluctuant masses
  5. Labs
    1. Alkaline Phosphatase increased
    2. Hemoglobin or Hematocrit consistent with Anemia
    3. Culture
      1. Blood Culture
      2. Bone Marrow Aspirate
      3. Lymph node biopsy
    4. Culture Sites not useful (may represent colonization)
      1. Sputum Culture
      2. Stool Culture
    5. Tuberculin Skin Testing
      1. Negative in 50% normal hosts (without Tuberculosis)
  6. Prevention: Prophylaxis in HIV when CD4 Count < 100
    1. Indicated for CD4 Cell Count < 100
    2. First-line prophylaxis
      1. Azithromycin 1200 mg PO each week
        1. More effective than Rifabutin
    3. Other prophylaxis options
      1. Combination protocol
        1. Azithromycin weekly and
        2. Rifabutin daily
      2. Rifabutin 300 mg/day
        1. Reduces the Incidence of bacteremia by 50%
        2. Risk of Uveitis from rifabutin
      3. Clarithromycin 500 mg PO bid
        1. Decreases MAC infection by 68%
        2. Produces survival benefit
  7. Management: MAC in HIV
    1. Colonization without bacteremia
      1. Should not be treated
      2. May be candidates for prophylaxis
    2. Treatment
      1. Clarithromycin and 1-2 other active agents
        1. Prevents resistance
      2. Continue drugs for the lifetime of the patient
  8. References
    1. Weller (2001) BMJ 322:1350-4 [PubMed]

You are currently viewing the original 'fpnotebook.com\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree