Gynecology Book

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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Causes

Aka: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Causes
  1. See Also
    1. Menstrual Cycle
    2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding)
    3. Anovulatory Bleeding (Metrorrhagia)
    4. Ovulatory Bleeding (Menorrhagia)
    5. Uterine Bleeding in Pregnancy
    6. First Trimester Bleeding
    7. Late Pregnancy Bleeding
    8. Endometrial Cancer Screening
    9. Oral Contraceptive-Related Uterine Bleeding Management
    10. Postmenopausal Bleeding
    11. Amenorrhea
    12. Lower GI Bleed
    13. Hematuria
  2. Causes: Age-Specific uterine bleeding Causes
    1. Prepubertal Years (before Menarche)
      1. Newborn girls
        1. Occurs within 6 weeks of delivery
        2. Maternal placental Estrogen withdrawal bleeding
      2. Vaginal foreign body with secondary Vaginitis
        1. Presents as non-malodorous discharge and Vaginal Bleeding
        2. Peak Incidence: 3 to 9 years old
        3. Accounts for 4% of pediatric gynecologic ambulatory visits
      3. Vaginitis (most comon)
        1. Contact Vulvovaginitis from soaps, bubble bath, scented toilet paper
        2. Bacterial vulvovaginitis (Shigella, Streptococcus Pyogenes)
      4. Accidental Trauma (bike accidents or straddle injuries)
      5. Prolapse of Urethral meatus
      6. Sexual abuse
      7. Ingestion of Estrogen containing products
      8. Precocious Puberty (Menses before age 8 years)
      9. Malignancy
    2. Early Reproductive Years
      1. Anovulatory cycles with Menarche (initially 55-85%)
        1. Persists 18 months on average
        2. Menorrhagia at Menarche is a common presentation of underlying Bleeding Disorder (up to 24% of cases)
          1. Consider focused evaluation for cause including Von Willebrand Disease (most common)
      2. Primary coagulation disorders (19%)
        1. See below
      3. Pregnancy related disorders
    3. Later reproductive and postmenopausal years (includes age >35 years)
      1. See Postmenopausal Bleeding
      2. See Menopause
      3. Extra-uterine source
        1. Cervical, vaginal, vulvar and Adnexal bleeding
        2. Hematuria (Urethra, Bladder, ureter or Kidney)
        3. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (e.g. rectal bleeding)
      4. Evaluate for Malignancy!
        1. Postmenopausal Bleeding is due to malignancy (esp Endometrial Cancer) in up to 40% of cases
        2. Peak Incidence of Endometrial Cancer is age 60-64 years
      5. Atrophic Vaginitis
        1. Most common cause of Postmenopausal Bleeding
      6. Postmenopausal Endometrial Hyperplasia
        1. If no Estrogen Replacement, find Estrogen source
  3. Causes: Coagulation Bleeding Disorders (common)
    1. See Coagulopathy in Pregnancy
    2. See Coagulation Bleeding Disorders
    3. See Platelet Dysfunction
    4. Von Willebrand's Disease (most common)
    5. Thrombocytopenia
      1. Aplastic Anemia
      2. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
      3. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
      4. Sepsis
    6. Glanzmann's Disease
    7. Fanconi's Anemia
    8. Thalassemia major
    9. Acute Leukemia
    10. Renal Disease
    11. Acute or Chronic Liver Disease
      1. Decreased synthesis of Coagulation Factors
      2. Estrogen metabolism is also reduced in Cirrhosis
  4. Causes: Pregnancy-related uterine bleeding complications
    1. See Uterine Bleeding in Pregnancy
  5. Causes: Endocrine-related uterine bleeding complications
    1. Thyroid
      1. Hyperthyroidism
      2. Increased Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
        1. Increased Testosterone
        2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
      3. Hypothyroidism
        1. Increased Prolactin
    2. Adrenal
      1. Addison's Disease
      2. Cushing's Syndrome
      3. Excessive Androgen Production
    3. Miscellaneous
      1. Prolactinoma
      2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  6. Causes: Medication-related Uterine Bleeding Disorders
    1. See Medication Causes of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  7. Causes: Structural-related uterine Bleeding Disorders
    1. Local infection
      1. Cervicitis
      2. Endometritis
      3. Salpingitis
    2. AdenomyosisCervicitis
    3. Endometrial and Endocervical Polyps
    4. Endometrial Hyperplasia
    5. Endometrial Cancer
    6. Ovarian Cancer
    7. Functional ovarian tumors (produce sex hormones)
    8. Cervical Dysplasia
    9. Cervical Cancer
    10. Submucosal or intramural leiomyoma
    11. Uterine Fibroids
    12. Sarcoidosis
    13. Tuberculosis of the endometrium
    14. Vaginal Trauma (foreign body, sexual abuse, Laceration)
  8. References
    1. Mace (2013) Crit Dec Emerg Med 27(2): 13-21

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