Gynecology Book

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Polycystic Ovary Disease

Aka: Polycystic Ovary Disease, Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Polycystic Ovaries, Functional Ovarian Hyperandrogenism, PCO Disease, PCOS
  1. See Also
    1. Hyperandrogenism
    2. Insulin Resistance Syndrome
    3. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Prevalence: 7% of reproductive-aged women in U.S. (most common endocrinopathy in this group)
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. History
      1. First described by Stein and Leventhal in 1935
    2. Contributing Factors
      1. Obesity and hyperinsulinemia
      2. Increased adrenal function
    3. Androgen Excess (Hyperandrogenism)
      1. Androstenedione increased
      2. Testosterone increased
      3. Free Testosterone increased
        1. Occurs with decreased Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
    4. Ovarian enlargement with Hyperthecosis
      1. Luteinization of theca interna
      2. Reduction of granulosa cells
  4. Symptoms
    1. Menstrual Disorders (80% of PCOS patients)
      1. Oligomenorrhea (36 to 180 day cycles) or Amenorrhea
      2. Anovulatory Bleeding (<6 Menses per year)
      3. Delayed menstrual regularity
    2. Infertility (74% of patients) or Recurrent Miscarriage
    3. Androgenic features
      1. See Hyperandrogenism
      2. Acne Vulgaris
      3. Hirsutism (69%)
      4. Male sweat changes
      5. Clitoris swelling
    4. Central Obesity (49% of PCOS patients)
      1. Weight gain starts in teens and twenties
      2. BMI over 27 (65% of PCOS patients)
  5. Signs
    1. Hypertension
    2. Hirsutism
    3. Acne Vulgaris
    4. Alopecia
    5. Acathosis nigricans
    6. Skin Tags
    7. Bilateral ovary enlargement
  6. Differential Diagnosis (See Hyperandrogenism)
    1. HAIR-AN Syndrome
    2. Cushing's Syndrome (buffalo hump, striae)
      1. Obtain 24 hour Urine Cortisol (or Dexamethasone Suppression Test)
    3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (severe Virilization)
      1. Serum DHEAS > 700 ng/dl (Androgen secreting tumor)
      2. Serum Total Testosterone >20 ng/dl (Androgen tumor)
      3. Obtain pelvic Ultrasound and Adrenal CT or MRI
    4. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (Hot Flashes, atrophic urogenital symptoms)
      1. Serum FSH
      2. Serum Estradiol
    5. Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (e.g. Female Athlete Triad with low BMI, Eating Disorder, athlete)
      1. Serum LH
      2. Serum FSH
      3. Serum Estradiol
    6. Acromegaly (protruding jaw, change in head or hand size, visual changes)
      1. Insulinlike Growth Factor 1
  7. Associated Conditions
    1. Metabolic Syndrome (RR 2)
    2. Type II Diabetes Mellitus (RR 4)
    3. Obesity (50% of PCOS patients)
    4. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    6. Dyslipidemia
    7. Cardiovascular Disease
    8. Mood Disorders (e.g. Major Depression, Generalized Anxiety)
  8. Imaging: Transvaginal Ultrasound
    1. Indications
      1. Ultrasound is not required for diagnosis of PCOS (diagnosis can be made clinically)
      2. Obtain if Rotterdam Criteria not met or ovarian pathology suspected (e.g. Ovarian tumor)
    2. General features
      1. At least 12 (25 if new technology used) small follicles (2-9 mm diameter each) in various stages
      2. Ovary >10 ml in volume
      3. Thick ovarian capsule
      4. String of pearls appearance
    3. Criteria: Multiple Ovarian Cysts (seen in 80% of cases)
      1. Ten or more cysts in a single plane
      2. Each cyst <10 mm in diameter
      3. Dense stroma
    4. Interpretation
      1. Polycystic appearance is seen in up to 62% of women with normal Ovulation
      2. Polycystic appearance does not diagnose PCOS
      3. PCOS clinical features must be present for diagnosis
      4. Hassan (2003) Fertil Steril 80:966-75 [PubMed]
  9. Labs: Approach
    1. Consider Hyperandrogenism labs (if not evident from exam or severe Virilization of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)
      1. Serum DHEAS > 700 ng/dl (Androgen secreting tumor)
      2. Serum Total Testosterone >20 ng/dl (Androgen tumor)
      3. Obtain pelvic Ultrasound and Adrenal CT or MRI for severe Virilization of CAH (deep voice, clitoromegaly)
    2. Exclude other diagnoses
      1. Urine Pregnancy Test
      2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
      3. Morning 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (adrenal hyperplasia)
      4. Serum Prolactin
    3. Evaluate comorbid disease
      1. Blood Pressure
        1. Obtain at each visit
      2. Fasting Glucose (or other Diabetes Mellitus Screening)
        1. Obtain at diagnosis and re-screen at least every 3-5 years (or more often)
      3. Fasting Lipid Panel
        1. Obtain at time of diagnosis
    4. Other tests to consider
      1. Serum LH (hypothalamic Amenorrhea)
      2. Serum FSH (hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)
      3. Serum Estradiol (hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)
    5. Other tests that have been used in past (listed for historical purposes)
      1. Glucose to Insulin Ratio < 4.5 is consistent with PCOS-related hyperinsulinemia
  10. Labs: Review of laboratory changes in PCOS
    1. Insulin Resistance Syndrome (70% of PCOS patients)
      1. Glucose to Insulin Ratio < 4.5
        1. Sensitive marker of Insulin Resistance in PCOS
      2. Insulin increased (C-Peptide increased)
      3. Fasting Serum Glucose increased
      4. Two hour Glucose Tolerance Test abnormal
    2. Gonadotropin increases
      1. Luteinizing hormone (LH) exaggerated surge
      2. Serum LH to Serum FSH ratio exceeds 3.0 (30%)
      3. Serum Testosterone >20 ng/dl
      4. Serum Free Testosterone >2.57 pg/ml
      5. Androstenedione >2.7 ng/ml
    3. Associated endocrine abnormality testing
      1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
      2. Serum Prolactin
      3. Consider adrenal function testing
    4. Associated dyslipidemia
      1. Total Cholesterol increased
      2. LDL Cholesterol increased
      3. HDL Cholesterol decreased
      4. Triglycerides increased
  11. Diagnosis
    1. Delay diagnostic evaluation until at least 2 years after Menarche
    2. Diagnosis may be made in many patients based on history, exam and limited laboratory testing
    3. Rotterdam Criteria from 2003 (2 of 3 required in adults, 3 of 3 in adolescents)
      1. Hyperandrogenism
      2. Ovulatory Dysfunction
      3. Polycystic Ovaries
  12. Management: Obesity
    1. Weight loss of 10% in Overweight patients
      1. Insulin Resistance decreases with weight loss
        1. Kiddy (1992) Clin Endocrinol 36:105-11 [PubMed]
      2. Results in 75% conception rate in PCOS
        1. Bates (1982) Fertil Steril 38:406-9 [PubMed]
  13. Management: Ovulatory Dysfunction (Anovulation, oligomenorrhea or irregular Menses)
    1. Fertility desired
      1. First-line
        1. Clomiphene (Clomid) or Letrozole (Femara)
      2. Adunctive in Overweight women (if clomiphene ineffective alone)
        1. Metformin (Glucophage)
    2. Fertility not desired
      1. First-line (Unopposed Estrogen management)
        1. Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine Device (Mirena IUD) or other hormonal contraceptive
        2. Provera 10 mg orally daily for 7 days repeated every 3 months or
        3. Seasonal Oral Contraceptive Cycle (e.g. Seasonale) or
        4. Oral Contraceptive with low Androgenic Activity (preferred first line agents)
          1. Ortho Tri-Cyclen
          2. Ortho-Cept or Desogen
          3. Modicon
          4. Ortho-Cyclen
          5. Yasmin
      2. Second-line
        1. Metformin (Glucophage)
  14. Management: Hirsutism
    1. See HAIR-AN Syndrome
    2. See Hirsutism
    3. Fertility desired
      1. See Hair Removal Technique
      2. Electrolysis
      3. Laser Hair Reduction
    4. Fertility not desired
      1. First-line agents
        1. See Hair Removal Technique
        2. Hormonal Contraception
      2. Second-Line Agents
        1. Spironolactone (Aldactone) 50 mg orally twice daily (Teratogen risk, use with Hormonal Contraception)
        2. Eflornithine (Vaniqa) 13.9% applied to face daily
        3. Finasteride (Propecia)
        4. Flutamide (Eulexin)
      3. Third-Line Agents
        1. Metformin
  15. Management: Acne Vulgaris
    1. Fertility desired
      1. Benzoyl Peroxide
      2. Topical Antibiotics
    2. Fertility not desired
      1. First-line agents
        1. Hormonal Contraception
          1. See Adjunctive Acne Vulgaris Management
        2. Topical Agents
          1. See Acne Vulgaris Management
          2. Benzoyl Peroxide
          3. Retin-A
          4. Differin
          5. Topical Antibiotics
      2. Second-line agents
        1. Spironolactone (with Contraception to prevent pregnancy due to Teratogenicity)
  16. Management: Insulin Resistance
    1. Metformin (Glucophage)
      1. Primarily indicated in comorbid Diabetes Mellitus, history of Gestational Diabetes or Metabolic Syndrome
      2. May be used in those trying to conceive
      3. Consider in irregular Menses in women unable to take Oral Contraceptives
      4. Start at 500 mg PO daily and advance to 1500-2000 mg daily divided bid
      5. Effect not seen until dose >1000 mg/day
      6. Induces Ovulation in up to 46% of PCOS cases
      7. Barbieri (2003) Obstet Gynecol 101:785-93 [PubMed]
      8. Lord (2003) BMJ 327:951-6 [PubMed]
    2. Glitazones
      1. Not recommended in general due to risk of weight gain and Miscarriage
      2. Pioglitazone (Actos) 30 mg orally daily
        1. Ortega-Gonzalez (2005) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90(3): 1360-5 [PubMed]
      3. Rosiglitazone (Avandia) 2-8 mg orally daily (best effect with higher doses)
        1. No longer available in U.S. due to adverse effects
        2. Cataldo (2006) Hum Reprod 21(1): 109-20 [PubMed]
  17. Management: Advanced
    1. Gonadotropins (e.g. Metrodin, Pergonal)
      1. Risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
    2. FSH with hCG
    3. Glucocorticoids (Prednisone, Dexamethasone)
      1. Indicated in adrenocortical hyperplasia
    4. GnRH-agonist
      1. Indicated prior to Ovulation induction
  18. Management: Surgical
    1. Ovarian wedge resection
      1. Normal cycles resume in 80% of patients
      2. Conception occurs in 63%
      3. Risk of peritubular and ovarian adhesions
    2. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling
      1. Similar results to ovarian wedge resection
      2. Minimally invasive
  19. Complications
    1. Infertility
    2. Increased Breast Cancer risk
    3. Increased Endometrial Cancer risk
      1. Associated with Unopposed Estrogen
    4. Increased cardiovascular disease risk
  20. References
    1. Acien (1999) Fertil Steril 72:32-40 [PubMed]
    2. Chang (1999) Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 28:397-408 [PubMed]
    3. Futterweit (1999) Obstet Gynecol Surv 54:403-13 [PubMed]
    4. Pasquali (1999) Clin Endocrinol 50:517-27 [PubMed]
    5. Richardson (2003) Am Fam Physician 68(4):697-704 [PubMed]
    6. Taylor (1998) Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 27:877-902 [PubMed]
    7. Williams (2016) Am Fam Physician 94(2): 106-13 [PubMed]

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (C0032460)

Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (CHV) a health problem that can affect a woman's menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance
Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts (fluid-filled sacs) develop on the ovaries. Women who are obese are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome.

Symptoms of PCOS include:

  • Infertility
  • Pelvic pain
  • Excess hair growth on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes
  • Baldness or thinning hair
  • Acne, oily skin, or dandruff
  • Patches of thickened dark brown or black skin

Women with PCOS are at higher risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and high blood pressure.Medicines can help control the symptoms. Birth control pills help women have normal periods, reduce male hormone levels, and clear acne. Other medicines can reduce hair growth and control blood pressure and cholesterol. There is no cure.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Definition (NCI) A disorder that manifests as multiple cysts on the ovaries. It results in hormonal imbalances and leads to irregular and abnormal menstrual periods, excess growth of hair, acne eruptions and obesity.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A condition marked by infertility, enlarged ovaries, menstrual problems, high levels of male hormones, excess hair on the face and body, acne, and obesity. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and endometrial cancer.
Definition (NCI) A non-neoplastic disorder characterized by bilateral polycystic and enlarged ovaries. Clinical signs include amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, infertility, obesity, hirsutism, and virilism.
Definition (MSH) A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Definition (CSP) clinical symptom complex characterized by presence of multiple cysts on the ovaries, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation and regularly associated with excessive amounts of body hair (hirsuitism), excessive body weight, infertility and insulin resistance.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D011085
ICD9 256.4
ICD10 E28.2
SnomedCT 237055002, 237792009, 154714009, 271199009, 190549002, 69878008
English Ovary Syndrome, Polycystic, Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, Syndrome, Polycystic Ovary, Syndrome, Stein-Leventhal, Stein Leventhal Syndrome, PCOD - Polycystic ov disease, PCOS - Polycystic ov syndrome, PCOS, STEIN-LEVENTHAL SYNDROME, PCO1, PCO, PCOS1, POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME 1, Stein Leventhal syndrome (diagnosis), polycystic ovarian syndrome, PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome), Stein Leventhal syndrome, polycystic ovary, polycystic ovary (stein leventhal syndrome), Polycystic ovary, Polycystic Ovarian Disease, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [Disease/Finding], Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Ovarian Syndrome, Polycystic, ovaries polycystic, polycystic ovarian disease, ovary polycystic, ovarian polycystic disease, sclerocystic ovarian disease, stein-leventhal syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), diseases ovary polycystic, stein leventhal syndrome, disease ovary polycystic, multicystic ovaries, disease ovarian polycystic, ovarian hyperthecosis, polycystic ovaries, Stein Lenventhal syndrome, polycystic ovary disease, polycystic ovary disorder, Polycystic ovary disease, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 1, (Polycystic ovaries) or (Stein-Leventhal syndrome), Multicystic ovaries (disorder), Stein-Leventhal synd., (Polycystic ovaries) or (Stein-Leventhal syndrome) (disorder), Polycystic ovary syndrome (disorder), Stein - Leventhal syndrome, Ovarian Degeneration, Sclerocystic, Sclerocystic Ovarian Degeneration, Sclerocystic Ovary Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, Polycystic ovaries, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Stein-Leventhal syndrome, Cystic disease of ovaries, Polycystic ovarian disease, Multicystic ovaries, PCOD - Polycystic ovarian disease, PCOS - Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Sclerocystic ovary syndrome, PCO - Polycystic ovaries, Polycystic ovaries (disorder), bilateral polycystic ovarian; syndrome, disease (or disorder); ovary, polycystic, disease (or disorder); polycystic, ovary, Stein-Leventhal, ovary; polycystic (syndrome), ovary; sclerocystic, syndrome, ovary; syndrome, polycystic, ovary; syndrome, sclerocystic, polycystic; disease, ovary, polycystic; ovary, sclerocystic ovary syndrome, syndrome; bilateral polycystic ovarian, syndrome; ovary, polycystic, syndrome; ovary, sclerocystic, syndrome; polycystic ovarium, syndrome; sclerocystic ovary, Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Dutch polycysteus ovarium-syndroom, polycystische ovaria, aandoening; ovarium, polycysteus, aandoening; polycysteus, ovarium, dubbelzijdig polycysteus ovarium; syndroom, ovarium; polycysteus (syndroom), ovarium; sclerocysteus, syndroom, ovarium; syndroom, polycysteus, ovarium; syndroom, sclerocysteus, polycysteus; aandoening, ovarium, polycysteus; ovarium, syndroom; dubbelzijdig polycysteus ovarium, syndroom; ovarium, polycysteus, syndroom; ovarium, sclerocysteus, syndroom; polycysteus ovarium, syndroom; sclerocysteus ovarium, polycysteuze eierstokken, Polycysteus-ovariumsyndroom, Stein-Leventhal-syndroom, Syndroom, polycysteus-ovarium-
French Ovaire polykystique, Syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques, OPK (Ovaires Polykystiques), Ovaires polykystiques, MPO (MicroPolykystose Ovarienne), Micropolykystose ovarienne, SOMPK, Dystrophie ovarienne, SOPK, Syndrome de Stein-Leventhal, Syndrome des ovaires polykystiques, Polykystose ovarienne, SOPK (Syndrome des Ovaires PolyKystiques)
German polyzystischer Eierstock, Stein-Leventhal Syndrom, polyzystisches Ovarialsyndrom, Syndrom polyzystischer Ovarien, polyzystische Eierstoecke, Polyzystisches ovarielles Syndrom, Stein-Leventhal-Syndrom
Italian Ovaio policistico, Sindrome ovarica policistica, PCO, Malattia sclerocistica dell'ovaio, Sindrome di Stein-Leventhal, Policistosi ovarica, Sindrome dell'ovaio policistico
Portuguese Síndrome de ovário poliquístico, Ovário poliquístico, Ovários poliquísticos, Síndrome de Stein-Leventhal, Síndrome do Ovário Policístico
Spanish Ovario poliquístico, Síndrome ovárico poliquístico, enfermedad quística de los ovarios, ovarios poliquísticos, poliquistosis ovárica (trastorno), poliquistosis ovárica, síndrome de Stein - Leventhal, Ovarios poliquísticos, Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico, Síndrome de Stein-Leventhal
Japanese スタイン・レーヴェンタール症候群, 多嚢胞性卵巣, タノウホウセイランソウショウコウグン, タノウホウセイランソウ, スタインレーヴェンタールショウコウグン, シュタイン・レバンタール症候群, スタイン・レベンタール症候群, 多嚢胞性卵巣症候群, Stein-Leventhal症候群, シュタイン-レバンタール症候群, 多のう胞性卵巣症候群, 多嚢胞卵巣症候群
Swedish Polycystiskt ovariesyndrom
Czech syndrom polycystických ovarií, Syndrom polycystických ovárií, Polycystický vaječník, Polycystická ovaria, Stein-Leventhalův syndrom, syndrom polycystických vaječníků
Finnish Munasarjojen monirakkulatauti
Russian POLIKISTOZNOGO IAICHNIKA SINDROM, SHTEINA-LEVENTALIA SINDROM, ПОЛИКИСТОЗНОГО ЯИЧНИКА СИНДРОМ, ШТЕЙНА-ЛЕВЕНТАЛЯ СИНДРОМ
Korean 다낭성 난소 증후군
Croatian POLICISTIČNI OVARIJ, SINDROM
Polish Zespół androgennych jajników, Zespół jajników wielotorbielowatych, Zespół policystycznych jajników, Zespół Steina-Leventhala
Hungarian Polycystás petefészkek, Polycystás ovarium, Stein-Leventhal syndroma, Polycystás ovarium syndroma
Norwegian PCOS, Polycystisk ovarie syndrom, Stein-Leventhal syndrom
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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