Gastroenterology Book

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Pancreatitis Causes

Aka: Pancreatitis Causes, Acute Pancreatitis Causes
  1. See Also
    1. Pancreatitis
    2. Medication Causes of Pancreatitis
  2. Causes: Most common
    1. Adults
      1. Cholelithiasis or Gallstone Pancreatitis (Up to 60-70% of cases in the United States)
      2. Alcohol Abuse (35% of cases)
        1. Alcoholics also get gallstone Pancreatitis (Ultrasound for Gallstones)
      3. Hypertriglyceridemia
    2. Children
      1. Infection (e.g. Mumps, Viral Hepatitis, Coxsackievirus, Ascariasis, Mycoplasma)
      2. Abdominal Trauma (e.g. handlebar injury)
  3. Causes: Gastrointestinal
    1. Cholelithiasis or Gallstone Pancreatitis (up to 60-70% of cases in the United States)
    2. Abdominal Trauma or surgery
    3. Following Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
    4. Peptic Ulcer perforation
    5. Hereditary Pancreatitis
    6. Pancreas divisum
    7. Ampulla of Vater Obstructed (e.g. Regional Enteritis)
    8. Sphincter of odi dysfunction
    9. Abdominal Trauma (1.5% of cases)
  4. Causes: Endocrine
    1. Hypertriglyceridemia (esp. if Triglycerides >500-1000, may be related to uncontrolled or undiagnosed Diabetes)
    2. Hypercalcemia (e.g. hypervitaminosis D, Hyperparathyroidism, Total Parenteral Nutrition)
    3. Renal Failure
    4. Cystic Fibrosis (Chronic Pancreatitis)
    5. Hemochromatosis (Chronic Pancreatitis)
  5. Causes: Infection
    1. Mumps
    2. Viral Hepatitis
    3. Coxsackievirus
    4. Ascariasis
    5. Mycoplasma
  6. Causes: Medications and toxins
    1. See Medication Causes of Pancreatitis
    2. Alcohol Abuse or Alcoholic Pancreatitis (35% of cases)
    3. Accounts for 2% of cases
    4. Toxins include Snake Bites and Scorpion bites
  7. Causes: Vasculitis
    1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    2. Necrotizing angiitis
    3. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
  8. References
    1. Mitchell (2003) Lancet 361:1447-55 [PubMed]
    2. Swaroop (2004) JAMA 291:2865-8 [PubMed]
    3. Tenner (2004) Am J Gastroenterol 99:2489-94 [PubMed]
    4. Quinlan (2014) Am Fam Physician 90(9): 632-9 [PubMed]

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