Ophthalmology Book


Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Aka: Central Retinal Artery Occlusion, CRAO
  1. See Also
    1. Transient Ischemic Attack
    2. Acute Vision Loss
  2. Risk Factors
    1. Age over 70
    2. Cardiovascular disease risks
      1. Coronary Artery Disease
      2. Diabetes Mellitus
      3. Hypertension
      4. Hyperlipidemia
      5. Hypercoagulable state
    3. Migraine Headaches
    4. Collagen vascular disease (e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
    5. Temporal Arteritis
    6. Sickle Cell Anemia
  3. Causes: Ophthalmic artery Occlusion
    1. See Transient Ischemic Attack
    2. Cholesterol emboli
    3. Thrombotic emboli
    4. Vasculitis
    5. Hypoperfusion
      1. Hemodialysis
      2. Severe shock
      3. Nocturnal artery Hypotension (awake with Vision Loss)
        1. Associated with antihypertensives taken near bedtime
  4. Symptoms
    1. See Transient Monocular Blindness (Amaurosis Fugax)
    2. Painless Acute Vision Loss
      1. More than half of patients have only hand motion and light perception
    3. May be associated with other focal neurologic deficits
      1. See Transient Ischemic Attack
      2. Affects ipsilateral Carotid Artery circulation
  5. Signs
    1. Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect
      1. Pupil dilated with slow reaction
    2. Fundoscopic exam
      1. Retina appears pale-gray due to Retinal edema
      2. Macula with cherry-red spot on white-yellow background
      3. Constricted arterioles
      4. Box-Carring of Retinal vessels
        1. Retinal vessels with interrupted columns of blood appear as train box cars
      5. Hollenhorst Plaques (emboli)
        1. "Glistening orange yellow flakes"
        2. Represent fragmented emboli at arteriole bifurcation
  6. Differential Diagnosis
    1. See Acute Vision Loss
  7. Labs
    1. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
      1. Increased in Temporal Arteritis
  8. Imaging: Obtain after acute stabilization (see management below)
    1. See Transient Ischemic Attack
    2. Internal Carotid Evaluation
      1. Neck evaluation for Carotid Bruit
      2. Carotid Doppler Ultrasound
      3. Carotid Arteriography
  9. Management
    1. Immediate Ophthalmology Consultation without delay
      1. Irreversible damage begins in the first 2 hours
    2. Lower Intraocular Pressure or dislodge Occlusion
      1. Lie patient supine with both Eyelids closed
      2. Ballot the eye: Apply intermittent pressure to eyeball
        1. Massage the globe with index fingers or each hand, then release suddenly
        2. Apply pressure in repeated cycles of 5-10 seconds on and 5 seconds off
        3. Perform for 20 cycles total or from 5-30 minutes
        4. Goal is to dislodge a thrombus
      3. Consider Hypercarbia
        1. Patient rebreathes into a paper bag for 10 minutes of each hour OR
        2. Inhalation of mix of 5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen OR
      4. Consider Aqueous Humor production strategies
        1. Mannitol 1 g/kg IV for 1 dose AND Acetazolamide 500 mg IV for 1 dose OR
        2. Acetazolamide 500 mg orally for 1 dose
      5. Other measures that have been used (discuss with ophthalmology)
        1. Timolol maleate (0.5%) one drop topically
        2. Pilocarpine drops to eye
        3. Oral Nitroglycerin
        4. Hyperbaric oxygen
        5. Pentoxifylline (Trental)
        6. Laser arteriotomy
        7. Embolectomy
      6. Measures to avoid (low efficacy or high risk of adverse effects)
        1. Thrombolysis is not recommended
  10. Prognosis
    1. Vision Loss risk increases after 90 minutes (and esp. after 4 hours) of arterial Occlusion
    2. Spontaneous visual improvement may occur in first 7 days after onset
  11. References
    1. Hartmann (2016) Crit Dec Emerg Med 30(6): 3-11
    2. Beatty (2000) J Accident Emerg Med 17:324-9 [PubMed]
    3. Pokhrel (2007) Am Fam Physician 76:829-36 [PubMed]

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (C0007688)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D015356
ICD9 362.31
ICD10 H34.1
SnomedCT 38742007
English CRA - Centr ret art occlusion, CRAO - Central ret art occln, Central ret artery occlusion, CRAO, central retinal artery occlusion (physical finding), central retinal artery occlusion, occlusion of central retinal artery (diagnosis), occlusion of central retinal artery, Cent retina artery occlu, Central retinal artery occlusion, CRA - Central retinal artery occlusion, CRAO - Central retinal artery occlusion, Central retinal artery occlusion (disorder), obstruction; artery, retina, central, occlusion; artery, retina, central, occlusion; retina, central retinal artery, retina; occlusion central retinal artery, artery; occlusion, artery, retinal, central retinal artery, Central Retinal Artery Occlusion
Dutch centrale retina arterie occlusie, afsluiting; arterie, retina, centraal, afsluiting; retina, arteria centralis retinae, arterie; afsluiting, arterie retina, a.centralis retinae, obstructie; arterie, retina, centraal, retina; afsluiting arteria centralis retinae, Afsluiting van arteria centralis retinae, Occlusie van centrale netvliesarterie
German Verschluss der zentralen Netzhautarterie, Zentraler Netzhautarterienverschluß, Verschluss der A. centralis retinae
Portuguese Oclusão da artéria central da retina, Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana Central
Spanish Oclusión de la arteria central de la retina, Oclusión de la Arteria Retiniana Central, oclusión de la arteria retiniana central (trastorno), oclusión de la arteria retiniana central
Japanese 網膜中心動脈閉塞, モウマクチュウシンドウミャクヘイソク
Italian Occlusione dell'arteria centrale della retina, Occlusione dell'arteria retinica centrale
French Occlusion de l'artère centrale de la rétine, Thrombose de l'artère centrale de la rétine
Czech Uzávěr centrální retinální arterie
Korean 중심 망막 동맥 폐쇄
Hungarian Arteria centralis retinae elzáródás
Norwegian Sentral retinaarterieokklusjon, Sentral retinal arterieokklusjon
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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