Endocrinology Book

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Incretin Mimetic

Aka: Incretin Mimetic, GLP-1 Analog, GLP-1 Agonist, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, GLP-1, GLP-1 Mimetic, GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Byetta, Exenatide, Bydureon, Liraglutide, Victoza, Saxenda, Tanzeum, Albiglutide, Dulaglutide, Trulicity, Adlyxin, Lixisenatide, Soliqua, Xultophy
  1. See Also
    1. Sitagliptin (Januvia)
    2. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor (DPP-4 Inhibitor)
  2. Indications
    1. Type II Diabetes Mellitus
      1. Especially in Obesity
      2. May be used in combination with basal Insulin (e.g. Lantus)
      3. Increased cardiovascular risk
    2. Insulin deficiency and Insulin Resistance
      1. Adjunct to Glucophage, Sulfonylureas, Glitazones
  3. Contraindications
    1. Type I Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Concurrent prandial Insulin (Bolus Insulin)
      1. Basal Insulin (e.g. Lantus) may be used with Byetta
    3. Renal Failure: Creatinine Clearance <30 ml/min
  4. Mechanism
    1. Synthetic form of exendin-4
      1. Originally identified in Gila Monster Saliva
      2. Peptide with 39 amino acids
    2. Incretin Mimetic
      1. Incretin analogue that mimics endogenous hormone
      2. Incretin released from GI tract following meals
    3. Incretin effects
      1. Increases Glucose dependent Insulin secretion
      2. Delays gastric emptying
      3. Decreases food intake (improves satiety)
  5. Preparations: Single Agent
    1. General selection
      1. All agents are expensive ($300 to $600 per month)
      2. The most potent agents (Exenatide ER, Dulaglutide, Liraglutide) lower Hemoglobin A1C 1.5%
      3. The most weight loss (6 pounds) occurs with Exenatide ER, Dulaglutide, Liraglutide
      4. Once weekly dosing is available for Albiglutide, Exenatide ER and Dulaglutide
      5. Most difficult to prepare are Exenatide ER and Albiglutide which both require reconstitution before injection
      6. Dulaglutide and Liraglutide appear to be most potent with greatest weight loss, weekly dosing and easiest to prepare
    2. Exenatide (Byetta)
      1. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist derived from Gila monster Saliva
      2. Associated with weight loss and Nausea
      3. Lowers Hemoglobin A1C by 1.0%
    3. Exenatide ER Weekly (Bydureon)
      1. Injected once weekly
      2. More potent than Byetta (lowers Hemoglobin A1C by 1.3%)
      3. Less Nausea than Byetta or Victoza
      4. Requires reconstitution from powder before dose
      5. Less Nausea than Byetta and Victoza
      6. More injection site reactions than Byetta and Victoza
    4. Liraglutide Standard Dose (Victoza)
      1. Single daily injection (as contrasted with twice daily Byetta)
      2. More potent than Byetta (lowers Hemoglobin A1C by 1.5%)
      3. Adverse effects include Nausea (transient) and Headache
    5. Liraglutide High Dose (Saxenda)
      1. Dosing
        1. Start at 0.6 mg SQ daily and increase weekly
        2. Saxenda is dosed up to 3 mg daily (contrast with 1.8 mg with Victoza)
      2. FDA approved as an Obesity Medication with release in 2015
      3. Results in weight loss up to 9.7 to 13 lb (4.4 to 5.9 kg) over Placebo
      4. Associated with gastrointestinal side effects (Nausea, Vomiting and Diarrhea)
      5. Consider in Type II Diabetes Mellitus in which an Obesity Medication is being considered
      6. Contraindicated in MEN-2 and Medullary Thyroid Cancer (personal history or Family History)
    6. Albiglutide (Tanzeum)
      1. Similar potency to Byetta (lowers Hemoglobin A1C by 1.0%)
      2. Less weight loss than with other agents (1-2 pounds compared with 6 pounds with other agents)
      3. Injected once weekly (similar to Bydureon)
      4. Less Nausea than Byetta and Victoza
      5. More injection site reactions than Byetta and Victoza
    7. Dulaglutide (Trulicity)
      1. More potent than Byetta (lowers Hemoglobin A1C by 1.5%)
      2. Once weekly injection
      3. Weight loss of 6 pounds on average
    8. Lixisenatide (Adlyxin)
      1. Newer agent of the class (released in 2017)
      2. Once daily injection dosing
  6. Preparations: Combination
    1. Advantages
      1. May spare basal Insulin Dosing
    2. Disadvantages
      1. Very expensive ($760 to 950 per month)
      2. Limits titration of basal Insulin Dosing (fixed dose combinations)
    3. Agents
      1. Xultophy (Insulin Degludec with Liraglutide)
      2. Soliqua (Insulin Glargine with Lixisenatide)
    4. References
      1. (2017) Presc Lett 24(6): 35
  7. Dosing: Byetta
    1. Initial
      1. Byetta 5 mcg SQ twice daily
      2. Give within 60 minutes of morning and evening meals
    2. Later, if Blood Sugars not optimized
      1. May increase to 10 mcg bid after 1 month
    3. Preparations: Prefilled pen holds 30 day supply
      1. 5 mcg/dose pen holds 1.2 ml of 250 mcg/ml
      2. 10 mcg/dose pen holds 2.4 ml of 250 mcg/ml
  8. Efficacy
    1. Lowers HBA1C 0.4 to 0.8% (at 5 and 10 mcg doses)
    2. Lowers weight by up to 4-10 pounds
  9. Cost
    1. Tanzeum: $325/month
    2. Bydureon: $400+/month
    3. Byetta: $400+/month
    4. Victoza: $600/month
  10. Adverse Effects
    1. Adverse effect Prevalence based on original Byetta data
    2. Nausea (44%) or Vomiting (13%)
      1. Less frequent with Bydureon
    3. Diarrhea (13%)
    4. Dizziness (9%)
    5. Headache (9%)
    6. Hypoglycemia
      1. With Sulfonylurea: 14.4% at 5 mcg, 35.7% at 10 mcg
      2. With Glucophage: 4.5% at 5 mcg, 5.3% at 10 mcg
    7. Pancreatitis (occurs with all GLP-1 Agonists)
      1. Incidence may be as high as 1 in 50 on Byetta for two years
      2. Singh (2013) JAMA Intern Med 173(7):534-9 [PubMed]
    8. Gallbladder disease (Cholelithiasis, Cholecystitis, Choledocholithiasis)
      1. Increased by one in 357 patients over 3 years of medication use
      2. Faillie (2016) JAMA Intern Med 176(10): 1474-81 +PMID: 27478902 [PubMed]
  11. Precautions
    1. Avoid using 2 Incretins (e.g. Byetta with Januvia) in combination (raises cost, risk of Pancreatitis without significant benefit)
      1. (2012) Presc Lett 19(8): 45
  12. References
    1. (2012) Presc Lett 19(3): 15
    2. (2014) Presc Lett 21(12): 69
    3. Dungan (2005) Clin Diabetes 23: 56-62 [PubMed]
    4. Ezzo (2006) Am Fam Physician 73 [PubMed]
    5. Fineman (2003) Diabetes Care 26:2370-7 [PubMed]
    6. Jones (2007) Am Fam Physician 75:1831-5 [PubMed]
    7. Joy (2005) Ann Pharmacol 39:110-8 [PubMed]
Medication Costs
byetta (on 2/22/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
BYETTA 10 MCG DOSE PEN INJ $267.39 per ml
BYETTA 5 MCG DOSE PEN INJ $533.58 per ml
bydureon (on 2/22/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
BYDUREON 2 MG PEN INJECT $149.65 each
BYDUREON 2 MG VIAL $149.42 each
victoza (on 9/2/2016 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
VICTOZA 2-PAK 18 MG/3 ML PEN $80.25 per ml
VICTOZA 3-PAK 18 MG/3 ML PEN $80.05 per ml
saxenda (on 1/18/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
SAXENDA 18 MG/3 ML PEN $73.68 per ml
tanzeum (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
TANZEUM 30 MG PEN INJECT $125.35 each
TANZEUM 50 MG PEN INJECT $125.05 each
trulicity (on 5/2/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
TRULICITY 0.75 MG/0.5 ML PEN $327.61 per ml
TRULICITY 1.5 MG/0.5 ML PEN $326.50 per ml
soliqua (on 5/17/2017 at Medicaid.Gov Pharmacy Drug pricing)
SOLIQUA 100 UNIT-33 MCG/ML PEN $40.41 per ml
FPNotebook does not benefit financially from showing this medication data or their pharmacy links. This information is provided only to help medical providers and their patients see relative costs. Insurance plans negotiate lower medication prices with suppliers. Prices shown here are out of pocket, non-negotiated rates. See Needy Meds for financial assistance information.

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (C0061355)

Definition (MSH) A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D052216
SnomedCT 43004008
Portuguese Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon, Peptídeo 1 Similar ao Glucagon, Peptídeo I Semelhante ao Glucagon, Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1, Peptídeo Similar ao Glucagon 1, Peptídeo Glucagonoide 1, Peptídeo I Similar ao Glucagon, Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon I, Peptídeo Glucagon-Like I, Peptídeo Glucagon-Like 1, Peptídeo Similar ao Glucagon I, Peptídeo 1 Glucagonoide
Italian Peptide 1 simile al glucagone, GLP-1
German Glucagon-Like-Peptide-1, Glucagon-ähnliches Peptid 1, GLP-1, Glukagon-ähnliches Peptid 1
Swedish Glucagonliknande peptid 1
English GLP1, GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 1, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, GLUCAGON LIKE PEPTIDE 001, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 [Chemical/Ingredient], glp-1, glp 1, glucagon like peptide 1, Glucagon-like peptide 1, Glucagon-like peptide 1 (substance), GLP-1, GLP 1, Glucagon Like Peptide 1, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1
Czech GLP-1, peptid 1 podobný glukagonu, glukagonu podobný peptid 1
Spanish Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón, Péptido 1 Glucagonoide, Péptido Similar al Glucagón 1, Péptido Glucagonoide 1, GLP - 1, péptido I similar al glucagón (sustancia), péptido I similar al glucagón
Finnish Glukagonia muistuttava peptidi 1
French Glucagon-like peptide I, GLP-1, Glucagon-like peptide 1, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Proglucagon (78-107)
Russian GLIUKAGON-PODOBNYI PEPTID 1, ГЛЮКАГОН-ПОДОБНЫЙ ПЕПТИД 1
Polish Peptyd glukagonopodobny 1
Norwegian Glukagonlignende peptid 1, GLP-1
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


exenatide (C0167117)

Definition (NCI) A 39 amino acid peptide and synthetic version of exendin-4, a hormone found in the saliva of the venomous lizard Gila monster, with insulin secretagogue and antihyperglycemic activity. Exenatide is administered subcutaneously and mimics human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Compared to GLP-1, exenatide has a longer half-life of 2.4 hours.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH C074031
SnomedCT 416859008, 417734003
English exendin-4, EXENATIDE, exenatide (medication), exenatide [Chemical/Ingredient], Ex4 peptide, exendin 4, exenatide, Exendin 4, Exenatide (product), Exenatide (substance), Exenatide
Spanish exenatida (producto), exenatida (sustancia), exenatida
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


liraglutide (C1456408)

Definition (NCI) A long-acting, fatty acylated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog administered subcutaneously, with antihyperglycemic activity. Liraglutide's prolonged action and half-life of 11-15 hours are attributed to the attachment of the fatty acid palmitic acid to GLP-1 that reversibly binds to albumin. Albumin binding protects liraglutide from immediate degradation and elimination and causes GLP-1 to be released from abumin in a slow and consistent manner. This agent may cause thyroid C-cell tumors and increases the risk of acute pancreatitis.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Hormone (T125)
MSH C439759
SnomedCT 444828003, 444907006
English LIRAGLUTIDE, Liraglutide (substance), Liraglutide (product), Liraglutide, N26-(Hexadecanoyl-gamma-glutamyle)-(34-arginine)glucagon-like-peptide-1-(7-37)-peptide, liraglutide
Spanish liraglutida, liraglutida (sustancia), liraglutida (producto)
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Incretin mimetic product (C1562104)

Concepts Hormone (T125) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
SnomedCT 416171004, 416636000
Spanish incretinomimético, agente mimético de la incretina (sustancia), agente mimético de la incretina, producto mimético de la incretina (producto), producto mimético de la incretina
English Incretin mimetic agent (substance), Incretin mimetic agent, Incretin mimetic product (product), Incretin mimetic product
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Byetta (C1636686)

Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH C074031
English Byetta
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


albiglutide (C2607479)

Definition (NCI) A long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, with antihyperglycemic activity. Albiglutide is composed of a GLP-1 (7-36) dimer fused to recombinant human albumin. Upon subcutaneous administration, this agent has a half-life of 4-7 days and resists degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Biologically Active Substance (T123)
MSH C534611
SnomedCT 703129009
English albiglutide, ALBIGLUTIDE, Albiglutide (substance), Albiglutide
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Victoza (C2732208)

Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH C439759
English Victoza, victoza
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


GLP-1 Receptor Agonist [EPC] (C2917359)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
English GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonist, Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, GLP-1 Receptor Agonist [EPC]
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


dulaglutide (C3179549)

Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH C555680
English dulaglutide
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Bydureon (C3257792)

Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
MSH C074031
English Bydureon, bydureon, Amylin Pharmaceuticals brand of exenatide
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


GLP-1 Mimetics (C3273809)

Definition (NCI) Any of the analogues of the endogenous gastrointestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with antihyperglycemic activity. GLP-1 mimetics mimic the activity of GLP-1 and thereby stimulate glucose-dependent secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, suppress glucagon secretion from alpha cells, increase insulin sensitivity and inhibit gastric emptying thereby slowing absorption of nutrients and creating a satiating effect. Altogether, this lowers blood glucose levels. GLP-1 is rapidly inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).
Concepts Chemical Viewed Functionally (T120)
English GLP-1 Analogue, GLP-1 Mimetics
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Tanzeum (C3819089)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
English Tanzeum
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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