Endocrinology Book

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Dietary Supplements in Obesity

Aka: Dietary Supplements in Obesity, Obesity Management with Dietary Supplements
  1. See Also
    1. Obesity
    2. Obesity in Children
    3. Obesity Evaluation
    4. Obesity Measurement (or Obesity Screening)
    5. Obesity Risk (or Obesity Comorbid Conditions)
    6. Obesity Management
    7. Obesity Medication
    8. Dietary Supplements in Obesity
    9. Exercise in Obesity
    10. Obesity Resources
  2. General
    1. Most studies on these agents are too short duration
    2. Most studies have also been of low power
    3. No strong evidence that any supplements are effective
  3. Preparations: Ineffective Agents (Avoid these)
    1. Chitosan
      1. Pittler (1999) Eur J Clin Nutr 53:379-81 [PubMed]
    2. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
      1. Blankson (2000) J Nutr 130:2943-8 [PubMed]
    3. Chromium Picolinate
      1. Ineffective with risk of Rhabdomyolysis
      2. Vincent (2003) Sports Med 33:213-30 [PubMed]
    4. Human chorionic Growth Hormone (HCG)
      1. Pulled from U.S. market by FDA in 2012
      2. Ineffective for weight loss despite which use continues by some weight loss clinics and someOTC manufacturers
      3. Risk of Venous Thromboembolism, Major Depression, cardiovascular events
      4. FDA Consumer Update
        1. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm281333.htm
    5. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid)
      1. Trials have shown conflicting results, but no evidence of either meaningful or sustained weight loss
      2. Risk of Serotonin toxicity and Serotonin Syndrome
      3. (2014) Presc lett 21(10): 58
    6. Fiber (guar gum, Psyllium)
    7. Yerba mate
    8. Licorice
    9. Vitamin B5
    10. L-Carnitine
    11. Dandelion (Diuretic)
    12. Cascara (Laxative)
    13. St. John's Wort (no effect on weight loss)
    14. Laminaria (kelp)
    15. Spirulina (blue green algae)
    16. Goggul (myrrh tree extract)
    17. Apple cider vinegar
  4. Preparations: Agents with inconsistent results or weak evidence
    1. Glucomannan (Dietary Fiber source)
      1. Modest weight loss in small trials
    2. Hydroxymethylbutyrate or Pyruvate
      1. May increase Lean Body Mass
    3. Yohimbine
    4. Ginseng
      1. No evidence to date supporting weight loss role
      2. May improve Glucose tolerance in diabetics
        1. Sotaniemi (1995) Diabetes Care 18:1373-5 [PubMed]
    5. Green Tea
    6. Pyruvate
    7. Raspberry Ketone
      1. Artificially synthesized to flavor food or as perfume in cosmetics
      2. Animal studies may show benefit in lipid metabolism
        1. No human studies to demonstrate benefit in weight loss
      3. No safety data for doses or frequency used for weight loss
        1. Palpitations have been reported
        2. Warfarin Drug Interaction reported (reduced Warfarin effect)
      4. References
        1. (2012) Presc Lett 19(5): 29
    8. Dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
      1. Sex hormone precursor (Testosterone, Estrogen)
      2. May reduce abdominal fat
      3. May increase Insulin sensitivity
      4. Long-term safety unclear
        1. Risk of Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer
      5. References
        1. (2004) JAMA 292:2243 [PubMed]
  5. Preparations: Agents with significant safety concerns (do not use)
    1. Avoid Ephedra
      1. Significant adverse effects (see Ephedra for risks)
      2. Marginal benefit in weight loss (1 kg)
      3. Shekelle (2003) JAMA 289:1537-45 [PubMed]
  6. Resources
    1. See Dietary Supplement Resources
  7. References
    1. Prittler (2004) Am J Clin Nutr 79:529-36 [PubMed]
    2. Saper (2004) Am Fam Physician 70:1731-38 [PubMed]

Dietary Supplements (C0242295)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do.

Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent certain birth defects in their babies.

To take a supplement as safely as possible

  • Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use
  • Do not take a bigger dose than the label recommends
  • Check with your health care provider about the supplements you take if you are going to have any type of surgery
  • Read trustworthy information about the supplement

NIH: National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A product that is added to the diet. A dietary supplement is taken by mouth, and usually contains one or more dietary ingredient (such as vitamin, mineral, herb, amino acid, and enzyme).
Definition (NCI) Oral preparations containing dietary ingredient(s) intended to supplement the diet. Dietary ingredients include vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, extracts and metabolites.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) Oral preparations containing dietary ingredient(s) intended to supplement the diet. Dietary ingredients include vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, extracts and metabolites.
Definition (MSH) Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as protein, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as vitamins, minerals, PHYTOCHEMICALS, or similar nutritional substances.
Definition (CSP) something that completes a diet, offsets a dietary deficiency or strengthens the diet.
Definition (PSY) Orally ingested products intended as supplements to the diet, including vitamins, herbs, amino acids, and concentrates, metabolites, and extracts of these substances.
Concepts Food (T168)
MSH D019587
SnomedCT 373689005, 226279009, 108961000, 373453009
LNC LP99357-3, MTHU035664
English Supplement, Dietary, Supplements, Dietary, Dietary Supplement, Supplement, Nutritional Supplement, dietary supplements, dietary supplements (medication), nutritional supplementation, dietary supplement, nutrient supplementation, Nutrient supplementation (substance), Dietary supplement, nutritional supplement, Dietary supplements, DIETARY SUPPLEMENT, supplemental nutrition, Nutrient supplementation, Nutritional supplementation, Nutrient supplementation (product), Nutritional supplement (product), Nutritional supplement (substance), Nutritional supplement, Dietary Supplements, Nutritional Supplements, nutritional supplements
German Nahrungsergänzungsmittel
Swedish Kosttillskott
Czech potravní doplňky, dietní doplňky, dietní suplementa
Finnish Ravinnonkorvikkeet
Russian PITATEL'NUIU TSENNOST' POVYSHAIUSHCHIE VESHCHESTVA, ПИТАТЕЛЬНУЮ ЦЕННОСТЬ ПОВЫШАЮЩИЕ ВЕЩЕСТВА
Japanese 栄養補充食品, ダイエタリーサプリメント, 食品-補充, 補充食品, ダイエタリー・サプリメント, 食品-栄養補助, ダイエタリー・サプルメント, サプリメント食品, 栄養補助食品, 栄養補給食品
Croatian DODACI PREHRANI
Polish Suplementy żywności, Suplementy diety, Wzbogacanie żywności
Norwegian Not Translated[Dietary Supplements]
Spanish suplemento de nutrientes, suplemento de nutrientes (sustancia), Alimentos Nutracéuticos, complemento nutricional (producto), complemento nutricional (sustancia), complemento nutricional, suplemento con nutrientes (producto), suplemento con nutrientes, suplemento nutricional (producto), suplemento nutricional (sustancia), suplemento nutricional, Suplementos Dietéticos
Portuguese Alimentos Nutracêuticos, Suplementos Nutricionais, Suplementos Dietéticos
French Compléments alimentaires
Italian Integratori alimentari
Dutch Voedingssupplement, Voedingssupplementen
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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