Endocrinology Book

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Tall Stature

Aka: Tall Stature
  1. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Normal variants
      1. Constitutional Tall Stature
      2. Familial Tall Stature
    2. Endocrine disorders
      1. Growth Hormone excess (GH secreting tumors, pituitary Gigantism, or Cerebral Gigantism or Soto Syndrome)
      2. Obesity
      3. Precocious Puberty
      4. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Untreated, pubertal)
      5. Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis)
    3. Genetic disorders - disproportionate overgrowth
      1. Marfan Syndrome
      2. Homocystinuria
      3. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
      4. Klinefelter Syndrome
    4. Genetic disorders - proportionate overgrowth
      1. Fragile X Syndrome
      2. Cerebral Gigantism (Sotos Syndrome)
      3. Weaver Syndrome
  2. Evaluation
    1. Assess parental heights
      1. See Midparental Height
    2. Weight Measurement in Children
    3. Height Measurement in Children
    4. Body Mass Index
    5. Weight for Height Age
    6. See Dysmorphic features in Congenital Dysorders
    7. Upper to Lower Segment Ratio
  3. Labs: Specific
    1. Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) - consult local endocrinology
    2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (Hyperthyroidism)
    3. Amino acid screen (Homocystinuria)
    4. Chromosome Karyotype (Klinefelter Syndrome, XXY in males)
    5. Glucose (Beckwith-Wiedemann)
    6. FSH, LH, Serum Testosterone, 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (Precocious Puberty, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)
  4. Imaging
    1. Bone Age XRay
  5. Evaluation
    1. Indications for Tall Stature evaluation
      1. Height > 2 SD above mean for age
      2. Projected height >2 SD above Midparental Height
    2. Normal exam, Bone Age and no dysmorphic features
      1. Constitutional Tall Stature
      2. Familial Tall Stature (consistent with Midparental Height)
    3. Normal exam without dysmorphic features, but with accelerated Bone Age, and recent growth spurt
      1. Obesity
      2. Precocious Puberty (early sexual characteristics)
      3. Growth Hormone excess
      4. Hyperthyroidism
    4. Dysmorphic features and proportionate growth
      1. Fragile X Syndrome
      2. Cerebral Gigantism (Sotos Syndrome)
      3. Weaver Syndrome
    5. Dysmorphic features and dysproportionate growth
      1. Marfan Syndrome
      2. Homocystinuria
      3. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome
      4. Klinefelter Syndrome
  6. Management
    1. Idiopathic Tall Stature
      1. No intervention needed
      2. Older methods have fallen out of favor
        1. High dose sex hormones promote Growth Plate closure, but have significant adverse effects
        2. Growth Plate destruction (via surgery) is controversial
    2. Pituitary Gigantism
      1. Growth Hormone suppression (e.g. octreotide, pegvisomant)
  7. References
    1. Alpert (1998) Pediatr Rev 19(9):303-5 [PubMed]
    2. Barstow (2015) Am Fam Physician 92(1): 43-50 [PubMed]
    3. Cuttler (1987) Pediatrician 14(3):109-20 [PubMed]
    4. Leung (1995) Can Fam Physician 41:457-68 [PubMed]
    5. Nwosu (2008) Am Fam Physician 78(5): 597-4 [PubMed]
    6. Rosenfield (1996) Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 25:743 [PubMed]

Tall stature (C0241240)

Concepts Finding (T033)
SnomedCT 248328003
Dutch grote gestalte, gestalte; groot, groot; gestalte
French Grande taille
German Statur grossgeachsen
Italian Statura alta
Portuguese Estatura alta
Spanish Estatura alta, alta estatura (hallazgo), alta estatura, talla alta
Japanese 高身長, コウシンチョウ
Czech Vysoký vzrůst
English tall stature, stature tall, Stature tall, Large stature, Tall stature, Tall stature (finding), stature; tall, tall; stature
Hungarian Termet magas
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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