Endocrinology Book

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Necrobiosis Lipoidica

Aka: Necrobiosis Lipoidica, Necrobiosis Lipoidica diabeticorum
  1. See Also
    1. Skin Conditions in Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Acanthosis Nigricans
    3. Diabetic Dermopathy
    4. Granuloma Annulare
    5. Diabetic Ulcer
    6. Diabetes Mellitus
    7. Type I Diabetes Mellitus
    8. Type II Diabetes Mellitus
    9. Insulin Resistance Syndrome
    10. Glucose Metabolism
    11. Diabetes Mellitus Education
    12. Diabetes Mellitus Complications
    13. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    14. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State
    15. Diabetes Mellitus Control in Hospital
    16. Diabetes Mellitus Glucose Management
    17. Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus
    18. Hyperlipidemia in Diabetes Mellitus
    19. Diabetic Retinopathy
    20. Diabetic Nephropathy
    21. Diabetic Neuropathy
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Age of onset
      1. Type I Diabetes Mellitus: 22 (mean age of onset)
      2. Type II Diabetes Mellitus: 30 to 50 years
    2. Most common in women by 3 fold
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Unknown etiology
    2. Appears related to microvascular changes
  4. Associated Conditions: Diabetes Mellitus
    1. Necrobiosis patients with comorbid diabetes: 11-65%
    2. Prevalence of necrobiosis in Diabetes: 0.3 to 1.6%
    3. Necrobiosis predicts of future diabetes development
  5. Symptoms
    1. Lesions are painless in most cases
  6. Signs
    1. Slowly growing oval atrophic Plaques
      1. May be several centimeters in size
      2. Initial
        1. Erythematous Plaque with raised irregular border
      3. Later
        1. Yellow brown waxy central atrophic area
    2. Distribution
      1. Classic (Diabetes): Bilateral shins, medial malleolus
      2. Other less-commonly involved locations
        1. Hands and Forearms
        2. Face and scalp
        3. Abdomen
    3. Telangiectases (subcutaneous vessels)
    4. Lesions may ulcerate with Trauma (risk of infection)
    5. Associated Neuropathy in 50% of patients
      1. Decreased pinprick and fine Touch Sensation
  7. Labs: Biopsy (often not needed)
    1. Necrobiosis of collagen
    2. Histiocytes and Lymphocytes surround collagen
    3. Inflammation around blood vessels
  8. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Dermatopathology
      1. Granuloma Annulare
    2. Clinical
      1. Rheumatoid Nodules in Rheumatoid Arthritis
      2. Erythema Nodosum
  9. Management
    1. Corticosteroids
      1. Clobetasol Propionate under Occlusion for 6 weeks
      2. Intralesional Kenalog 10 mg/ml (dilute to 2.5 mg/ml)
      3. Oral Prednisone for 5 weeks
    2. Topical Psoralen with Ultraviolet A Exposure (PUVA)
    3. Inhibition of Platelet aggregation
      1. Pentoxifylline (Trental) 400 mg PO tid for 4-8 weeks
      2. Aspirin 325 mg PO qd for 3 to 7 months
      3. Dipyridamole (Persantine) 150-200 mg PO divided qid
    4. Skin Grafting or local excision
      1. Not recommended due to high recurrence rate
      2. Extensive skin involvement refractory to above
    5. Other treatment modalities
      1. Laser treatment for telangiectasias
      2. Benzoyl Peroxide for ulcerated lesions
  10. Course
    1. Gradually resolves over 6-12 year period
    2. Residual atrophy persists after resolution
  11. References
    1. Habif (1996) Clinical Dermatology, Mosby, p. 784-5
    2. Ferringer (2002) Dermatol Clin 20(3):483 [PubMed]
    3. Lowitt (1991) J Am Acad Dermatol 25:735-48 [PubMed]
    4. Paron (2000) Prim Care 27(2):371-83 [PubMed]

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