Endocrinology Book

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Acanthosis Nigricans

Aka: Acanthosis Nigricans
  1. See Also
    1. Skin Conditions in Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Necrobiosis Lipoidica diabeticorum
    3. Diabetic Dermopathy
    4. Granuloma Annulare
    5. Diabetic Ulcer
    6. Diabetes Mellitus
    7. Type I Diabetes Mellitus
    8. Type II Diabetes Mellitus
    9. Insulin Resistance Syndrome
    10. Glucose Metabolism
    11. Diabetes Mellitus Education
    12. Diabetes Mellitus Complications
    13. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    14. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State
    15. Diabetes Mellitus Control in Hospital
    16. Diabetes Mellitus Glucose Management
    17. Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus
    18. Hyperlipidemia in Diabetes Mellitus
    19. Diabetic Retinopathy
    20. Diabetic Nephropathy
    21. Diabetic Neuropathy
  2. Classification and Causes
    1. Type 1: Hereditary Benign Acanthosis Nigricans
      1. Idiopathic onset during childhood or Puberty
    2. Type 2: Benign Acanthosis due to Insulin Resistance
      1. Diabetes Mellitus
      2. Androgen Excess (Hyperandrogenism)
        1. Acromegaly (Gigantism)
        2. Cushing's Syndrome
        3. HAIR-AN Syndrome
      3. Hypogonadism
        1. Addison's Disease
        2. Hypothyroidism
    3. Type 3: Pseudo-Acanthosis Nigricans
      1. Obesity resulting in Insulin Resistance
      2. Seen in patients with darker pigmentation
      3. Specific findings
        1. Numerous Skin Tags in axilla and groin
        2. Velvety patch at inner upper thigh areas of chafing
    4. Type 4: Drug-induced Acanthosis Nigricans
      1. Nicotinic Acid (high dose)
      2. Glucocorticoids
      3. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
      4. Oral Contraceptives (androgenic Progesterone)
      5. Growth Hormone therapy
    5. Type 5: Malignant Acanthosis Nigricans
      1. Causes
        1. Paraneoplastic tumors (Adenocarcinoma)
        2. Lymphoma
      2. Specific findings
        1. Palm and sole hyperkeratosis
        2. Lip vermilion border and Oral Mucosa involved
  3. Signs
    1. Characteristics
      1. Hyperpigmentation patches (dirty-appearing)
      2. Velvety feel and appearance develops over time
    2. Distribution
      1. Nape of neck
      2. Axillae
      3. Groin
      4. Vulva and Perineum
      5. Antecubital fossa
      6. Knuckles
      7. Submammary region
      8. Umbilicus
  4. Evaluation
    1. Consider malignancy
      1. Onset over age 35 years
      2. Non-obese patient
    2. Evaluate for cause of Insulin Resistance
    3. Evaluate for Hyperandrogenism
  5. References
    1. Elmer (2001) Am Fam Physician 63(12):2385-90 [PubMed]
    2. Fitzpatrick (1992) Atlas Dermatology, McGraw, p.732-3
    3. Hacker (1996) Postgrad Med 99(6):177-86 [PubMed]

Acanthosis Nigricans (C0000889)

Definition (NCI) A melanotic cutaneous lesion that develops in the axilla and other body folds. It may be idiopathic, drug-induced, or it may be associated with the presence of an endocrine disorder or malignancy.
Definition (MSH) A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.
Definition (CSP) circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds; occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D000052
ICD10 L83
SnomedCT 402599005, 72129000
Italian Acantosis nigricans, Acantosi nigricans
Japanese 黒色表皮腫, コクショクヒョウヒシュ
Swedish Acanthosis nigricans
English ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS, keratosis nigricans, acanthosis nigricans (diagnosis), acanthosis nigricans, Acanthosis Nigricans [Disease/Finding], Nigricans, Acanthosis, Nigrican, Acanthosis, Acanthosis Nigrican, Acanthosis nigricans, Keratosis nigricans, AN - Acanthosis nigricans, Acanthosis nigricans (disorder), keratosis; nigricans, nigricans; keratosis, Acanthosis Nigricans
Czech Acanthosis nigricans
Finnish Acanthosis nigricans
Korean 흑색 가시세포증(극세포증)
Croatian ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS
Polish Rogowacenie ciemne
Hungarian Acanthosis nigricans
Norwegian Acanthosis nigricans
French Dystrophie papillaire et pigmentaire, Acanthosis nigricans
Dutch keratose; nigricans, nigricans; keratose, acanthosis nigricans, Acanthosis nigricans
Spanish acantosis nigricans (trastorno), acantosis nigricans, queratosis nigricans, Acanthosis nigricans, Acantosis Nigricans
Portuguese Acantose nigricans, Acantose Nigricans
German Acanthosis nigricans
Russian ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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