Emergency Medicine Book

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Trauma History

Aka: Trauma History, AMPLE History, SAMPLE History
  1. See Also
    1. ABC Management
    2. Trauma Primary Survey
    3. Trauma Secondary Survey
    4. Trauma in Pregnancy
    5. Trauma in Children
    6. Emergency Procedure
    7. Trauma Team Activation (TTA)
    8. Trauma Triage in the Field
    9. Trauma Center
    10. Hemorrhagic Shock
    11. Fluid Resuscitation in Trauma
  2. History: General (Mnemonic: AMPLE or SAMPLE)
    1. Signs and Symptoms
    2. Allergies
    3. Medications
    4. Past illness
    5. Last Meal
    6. Events or Environment related to injury
  3. History: Mechanism of Injury - Motor Vehicle Accident
    1. Single Car Accident (6 S's Mnemonic)
      1. Seizure
      2. Syncope
      3. Sugar (Hypoglycemia)
      4. Suicide
      5. Sleep
      6. Sauce (Alcohol Intoxication)
    2. Frontal Impact
      1. Signs at accident scene
        1. Bent steering wheel
        2. Knee impact on dash
        3. Bull's-eye impression in windshield
      2. Associated Injuries
        1. Cervical SpineFracture
        2. Anterior Flail Chest
        3. Myocardial Contusion
        4. Pneumothorax
        5. Traumatic Aortic Rupture or transection
        6. Spleen or liver Fracture
        7. Hip or Knee Dislocation
    3. Side impact to automobile
      1. Contralateral neck sprain
      2. Cervical SpineFracture
      3. Pneumothorax
      4. Lateral Flail Chest
      5. Spleen or Liver Fracture
      6. Traumatic Aortic Rupture
      7. Diaphragmatic Rupture
      8. Pelvic Fracture or acetabulum Fracture
    4. Rear impact auto collision
      1. Cervical Spine Injury
    5. Ejection from vehicle
      1. Significantly increased risk of multiple injury
      2. Significantly increased mortality
    6. Motor vehicle-pedestrian: Injury triad
      1. Step 1: Bumper impact
        1. Lower extremity Fracture
      2. Step 2: Hood or Windscreen impact
        1. Thoracic or Abdominal Injury
      3. Step 3: Ground impact
        1. Head Injury
  4. History: Mechanism of Injury - Other causes
    1. Penetrating Trauma
      1. Bullets
      2. Knives
      3. Impaling object
    2. Burn Injury or Electrical Injury
    3. Cold Injury
      1. Frostbite
      2. Accidental Hypothermia
    4. Hazardous Environment
      1. Smoke Inhalation Injury
  5. References
    1. (2012) ATLS, 9th Ed, American College of Surgeons, Trauma Committee, p. 14-5

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