Emergency Medicine Book

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Biological Neurotoxin

Aka: Biological Neurotoxin, Neurotoxin
  1. See Also
    1. Chemical Weapon
    2. Pesticide
  2. Causes: Animal Toxins
    1. See Also Marine Envenomation
    2. Snake Venom
    3. Scorpion Sting
    4. Tick Paralysis
    5. Black Widow Spider
    6. Scombroid Fish Poisoning
    7. Ciquatera Toxin (Ciguatoxin)
    8. Paralytic Shellfish (Saxitoxin) in Clams and Mussels
      1. Acute paralysis 30 to 120 minutes after ingestion
      2. Toxin similar to Tetradotoxin
      3. Caused by Gonyaulax species
  3. Causes: Plant Toxins
    1. Mushrooms
      1. See Mushroom Poisoning
      2. Amanita muscaria and pantherina (Anticholinergic)
      3. Inocybe and Clitocybe species (parasympathetic)
      4. Coprinus atramentarius (Antabuse-like Alcohol effect)
      5. Psilcybe (Hallucinogen)
      6. Gyromitra esculenta or false morel: severe Neurotoxin
      7. Amanita phalloides (severe hepatotoxicity)
    2. Jamaican Vomiting Sickness
      1. Related to unripe ackee fruit ingestion
      2. Results in Reye's Syndrome type condition
    3. Chickpea (Lathyrism)
      1. Condition seen in Europe and India
    4. Khat
      1. Shrub in east africa and Yemen
      2. Leaves chewed for Amphetamine-like affect
      3. Central stimulant and Sympathomimetic effects
    5. Spanish Rapeseed oil (contains oleyl anilide)
    6. Plants with Depressants
      1. Toxins: Andromedotoxin, Veratrine, Solanine, Taxine
      2. Death Cama
      3. Lambkill
      4. Sheep laurel and mountain laurel
      5. Calico bush
    7. Plants with Convulsants
      1. Cicuta species (include North American Water Hemlock)
      2. Chinaberry
      3. Moonseed
      4. Pinkroot
      5. Carolina allspice
  4. Causes: Bacterial Toxins
    1. Diphtheria
    2. Botulism
    3. Tetanus
  5. References
    1. Goetz (2000) Neurol Clin 18(3):719-40 [PubMed]

Neurotoxins (C0027934)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A substance that is poisonous to nerve tissue.
Definition (MSH) Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Definition (PSY) Bacterial, chemical, or pharmacological substances that are destructive to nerve tissue.
Definition (CSP) toxin that is poisonous to or destroys nerve tissue.
Concepts Hazardous or Poisonous Substance (T131)
MSH D009498
SnomedCT 363642007
English Neurotoxins, neurotoxins, neurotoxin, Neurotoxin (substance), Neurotoxin
French Neurotoxines, Agents neurotoxiques, Substances neurotoxiques
Swedish Nervgifter
Czech neurotoxiny
Finnish Neurotoksiinit
Russian NEIROTOKSINY, EKSTSITOKSINY, НЕЙРОТОКСИНЫ, ЭКСЦИТОКСИНЫ
Japanese ニューロトキシン, 神経毒, 刺激毒素
Croatian NEUROTOKSINI
Polish Neurotoksyny
Spanish Neurotóxicos, neurotoxina (sustancia), neurotoxina, Neurotoxinas
German Neurotoxine
Italian Neurotossine
Portuguese Neurotoxinas
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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