Emergency Medicine Book

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Outdoor Air Pollutants

Aka: Outdoor Air Pollutants, Air Pollution, Ozone, Particulate Matter Pollution
  1. See Also
    1. Air Quality Index (AQI)
  2. Pathophysiology: Air Pollutants monitored by the EPA as part if Air Quality Index
    1. Carbon Monoxide
    2. Nitrogen Oxides
    3. Sulfur Dioxide
    4. Lead
      1. See Lead Toxicity
    5. Ozone
      1. NAAQS: 0.075 ppm over 8 hour averaging time (or 0.12 ppm over 1 hour averaging time)
      2. Formed from reaction between volatile organics (gasoline, chemicals, paints) and nitrogen oxide (combustion exhaust)
      3. Associated with respiratory irritation, diminished lung function and Asthma Exacerbation
    6. Small Particulate Matter (size <2.5 um)
      1. NAAQS: 15 mcg/m3 over 1 year averaging time (or 35.0 mcg/m2 over 24 hour averaging time)
      2. Sources include smoke, soot, liquid droplets from combustion exhaust
      3. Associated with Asthma/COPD exacerbation and increased all cause mortality, especially cardiac (MI, arrhythmia, CHF, CVA)
    7. Large Particulate Matter (size <10 um)
      1. NAAQS: 150 mcg/m3 over 24 hour averaging time
      2. Sources include larger dust and bioaerosols from agriculture and construction
      3. Same associate conditions as with smaller particulate matter exposure
  3. Resources
    1. EPA AirNow
      1. http://airnow.gov/
  4. References
    1. Jerrett (2009) N Engl J Med 360(11): 1085-95 [PubMed]
    2. Laumbach (2010) Am Fam Physician 81(2): 175-82 [PubMed]
    3. Pope (2009) N Engl J Med 360(4): 376-86 [PubMed]

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