Emergency Medicine Book


Spider Bite

Aka: Spider Bite, Spider
  1. See Also
    1. Insect Bite
    2. Vector-Borne Infection
  2. Pathophysiology
    1. Spiders are Arachnids (8 legged arthropods) along with mites and ticks
  3. Precautions
    1. "Spider Bites" are typically not due to Spiders, but rather other causes (e.g. MRSA Cellulitis)
    2. Most Spider Bites are benign (not black widow or brown recluse) and need only minimal local therapy (Wound Cleansing, cold therapy)
  4. Types: Spiders (in United States)
    1. Spiders with significant toxicity or reaction
      1. Black Widow Spider Bite
      2. Brown Recluse Spider Bite
      3. Tarantula Bite
    2. Spiders without significant bite reactions
      1. Orb Weaver (Araneus)
      2. Garden Spider (Argiope)
      3. Trap door Spider (Bothriocytum)
      4. Mouse Spider (Drassodes)
      5. Parson Spider (Herpyllus)
      6. Huntsman Spider (Heteropoda)
      7. Running Spider (Liocranoides)
      8. Wolf Spider (Lycosa)
      9. Crab Spider (Misumenoides)
      10. Barn Spider (Neoscona)
      11. Green lynx Spider (Peucetia)
      12. Jumping Spider (Phiddipus)
      13. False Black Widow Spider (Steatoda)
      14. Trap door Spider (Ummidia)
  5. Differential Diagnosis: Spider Bite
    1. Other Arthropod Bite (Insect Bite)
      1. Mosquito Bite
      2. Tick Bite
      3. Flea Bite
      4. Bee sting
    2. Infection - common (U.S.)
      1. Dermatomycosis
      2. Erysipelas
      3. Furuncle or boil (e.g. MRSA)
      4. HSV Infection
      5. Shingles
      6. Impetigo
      7. Lyme Disease
    3. Infection - less common
      1. Chagas Disease
      2. Cutaneous Anthrax
      3. Pyoderma Gangrenosum
      4. Southern tick-associated rash illness
      5. Sporotrichosis
      6. Syphilis
    4. Miscellaneous conditions
      1. Contact Dermatitis (e.g. Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Rhus Dermatitis, Irritant Contact Dermatitis)
      2. Angioneurotic edema
      3. Autoimmune Vasculitis
      4. Diabetic Foot Ulcer
      5. Erythema Multiforme
      6. Venous Stasis Ulcer
  6. Prevention
    1. See Prevention of Vector-borne Infection
    2. Check clothes for Insects before donning
    3. Flick Spiders off skin instead of crushing against skin
    4. Avoid habitats
      1. Woodpiles
      2. Crawl spaces
      3. Corners of buildings
    5. Remove Spider webs regularly
      1. Use brooms or vacuums
      2. Apply safe indoor Insecticides (Pyrethrins)
    6. Dress for working outdoors
      1. Keep skin covered by clothing
        1. Wear gloves
        2. Shirt tucked into pants
        3. Pants tucked into socks
        4. Wear a hat and high collar
        5. Avoid loose clothing
      2. Avoid Insect attractants
        1. Bright colors
        2. Perfumes
    7. Insect Repellants
      1. DEET
        1. Mosquitoes
        2. Fleas
        3. Gnats
        4. Chiggers
      2. Permethrin (Elimite, Nix) on clothes
        1. Ticks
  7. References
    1. Diaz (2007) Am Fam Physician 75(6):869-73 [PubMed]
    2. Juckett (2013) Am Fam Physician 88(12): 841-7 [PubMed]

Spiders (C0037913)

Definition (MSH) Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
Concepts Eukaryote (T204)
MSH D013112
SnomedCT 420814007, 23494002, 243674006, 359774004
English Spiders, Subclass: Araneae, Spider, Order Araneae (organism), Order Araneae, spiders, spider, Araneae, Spider (organism), Subclass: Araneae (organism), Spider, NOS, Spider [Ambiguous]
Spanish arañas, orden Araneae, orden Araneae (organismo), subclase: Araneae, araña, subclase: Araneae (organismo), araña (organismo), Araneae, Araneidos, Arañas
French Araignées
Swedish Spindlar
Czech pavouci
Finnish Hämähäkit
Croatian PAUCI
Polish Pająki
Norwegian Edderkopper
Portuguese Araneae, Araneidos, Aranhas
German Spinnen
Italian Ragni
Dutch Spin, Spinnen
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Spider Bites (C0242188)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Though many people are afraid of spiders, they rarely bite people unless threatened. Most spider bites are harmless. Occasionally, spider bites can cause allergic reactions. And bites by the venomous black widow and brown recluse spiders can be very dangerous to people.

If you are bitten by a spider, you may see a reaction similar to that of a bee sting, including redness, pain and swelling at the site. To treat a spider bite:

  • Wash the area well with soap and water
  • Apply an ice pack or a wet compress to the area
  • Take over-the-counter pain medicine, if needed
  • Consider using antihistamines for severe swelling
  • Seek medical treatment for small children and adults with severe symptoms

Definition (MSH) The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.
Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
MSH D001098
English Bite, Spider, Bites, Spider, Spider bite, spider bite, bitten by spider (history), bitten by spider, Bite;spider, spider bites, Spider Bites, Spider Bite, Spider Bites [Disease/Finding], Spider bites, bite; spider, spider; bite
Dutch spinnenbeet, beet; spin, spin; beet, Spinnenbeet
French Morsure d'araignée, Morsures d'araignées
German Spinnenbiss, Spinnenbiß
Italian Morso di ragno, Morsicature di ragno
Portuguese Mordedura de aranha, Not Translated[Spider Bites]
Spanish Picadura de araña, Not Translated[Spider Bites]
Japanese くも咬傷, クモコウショウ
Czech Kousnutí pavoukem, kousnutí pavoukem
Hungarian Pókcsípés
Norwegian Edderkoppbitt
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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