Otolaryngology Book

Pharmacology

  • Upper Respiratory Medications in Pregnancy

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Upper Respiratory Medications in Pregnancy

Aka: Upper Respiratory Medications in Pregnancy, Cold Preparations in Pregnancy
  1. See Also
    1. Medications in Pregnancy
    2. Over-The-Counter Medications in Pregnancy
  2. Class B: No risk in controlled animal studies
    1. Ammonium Chloride
    2. Azatadine
    3. Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton)
      1. Antihistamine of choice in pregnancy (but sedating, limit to night-time)
    4. Clemastine (Tavist)
    5. Cyproheptadine
    6. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
      1. Oxytocin-like effect at high dose
      2. Crosses placenta
    7. Doxylamine (Unisom)
    8. Loratidine (Claritin)
      1. Best to avoid in first trimester
    9. Meclizine (Antivert)
    10. Intranasal Budesonide (Rhinocort)
      1. Safe in pregnancy (but use lowest effective dose)
  3. Class C: Small risk in controlled animal studies
    1. Guaifenesin (Robitussin)
      1. Early use may be associated with Neural Tube Defects
      2. Avoid combination products containing Alcohol
      3. Avoid in first trimester
    2. Dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM)
      1. No increased risk in Collaborative Perinatal Project
    3. Intranasal Beconase AQ (beclomethasone)
    4. Benzonatate (Tessalon Perles)
    5. Codeine
      1. Avoid in first trimester
    6. Hydrocodone
    7. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
      1. Avoid in first trimester
    8. Pseudophedrine (Sudafed)
      1. Associated with Gastroschisis, small intestinal atresia and hemifacial microsomia (avoid in first trimester)
      2. Avoid in first trimester
    9. Brompheniramine
    10. Hydroxyzine (Atarax)
    11. Promethazine (Phenergan)
    12. Oxymetazoline (Afrin)
      1. Avoid in pregnancy (especially in first trimester)
      2. Significant absorption from the nasal mucose
    13. Cetirizine (Zyrtec)
      1. Avoid in first trimester
    14. Fexofenadine (Allegra)
  4. Class D: Strong Evidence of Risk to the Human Fetus
    1. Terpin Hydrate
    2. Iodides
  5. References
    1. Briggs (1998) Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation, 5th ed
    2. Black (2003) Am Fam Physician 67(12):2517-24 [PubMed]
    3. Larimore (2000) Prim Care 27(1):35-53 [PubMed]

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