Otolaryngology Book

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Bacterial Otitis Externa

Aka: Bacterial Otitis Externa
  1. See Also
    1. Otitis Externa
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Bacterial Infection causes majority of Otitis Externa cases
  3. Etiology
    1. Most common
      1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50% of cases)
        1. More common in Diabetes Mellitus
        2. See Malignant External Otitis
      2. Staphylococcus aureus
      3. Proteus
      4. Escherichia coli
    2. Atypical Bacteria
      1. Mycobacteria
        1. Chronic granulomatous and ulcerative canal lesions
      2. Mycoplasma
        1. Bullous lesions on Tympanic Membrane
  4. Signs and Symptoms
    1. See Otitis Externa
    2. More severe than other forms of Otitis Externa
    3. Significant canal swelling
    4. Fever (rarely over 38.3 C or 101.0 F)
    5. Lymphadenopathy anterior to tragus
  5. Management
    1. See Otitis Externa (includes Ear toilet measures)
    2. General measures
      1. Ear cleaning and debridement is paramount
      2. Consider ear wick (see Otitis Externa)
      3. Oral Analgesics (Ibuprofen or Tylenol)
      4. Topical Analgesics (e.g. Aurodex) may be used with caution (risk of Contact Dermatitis)
    3. Use caution if possible Tympanic Membrane Rupture
      1. Do not irrigate (suction only)
      2. Use only agents safe in Tympanic Membrane Rupture
        1. See Quinolones listed below
        2. Ofloxacin 0.3% otic drops
        3. Ciprofloxacin 0.3% eye drops (ciloxan)
          1. Ciprofloxacin 0.3% also available with Corticosteroid (Ciprodex otic, Cipro HC)
      3. Avoid ototoxic preparations
        1. Neomycin or polymixin agents (e.g. cortisporin)
        2. Aminoglycosides (e.g. Gentamicin, Tobramycin)
        3. Acetic acid
        4. Cortisporin (including suspension as of 2014)
    4. Otitis Externa Topical Medications
      1. See Ear Canal Instillation for topical otic medication instillation
      2. Treatment course
        1. Use for 3 days after symptoms resolve
        2. Typical treatment course 7 to 10 days
      3. Ear Canal Acidification (as effective as Cortisporin)
        1. Acetic acid otic solution 2% (VoSol)
          1. Acetic acid with Hydrocortisone (Vosol HC)
          2. Acetic acid with Aluminum acetate (Otic Domeboro)
        2. Homemade
          1. 2% Otic Acetic Acid (white vinegar) drops tid OR
          2. 1:1 mix of 5% acetic acid and rubbing Alcohol tid
      4. Antibiotic preparations
        1. Risk of Neomycin-induced Contact Dermatitis: 5-18%
        2. Neomycin with Polymixin B and Hydrocortisone
          1. Cortisporin Otic Suspension 4 drops in ear tid
        3. Neomycin with Thonzonium and Hydrocortisone
          1. Coly-Mycin S
        4. Polymyxin B and Hydrocortisone (Otobiotic)
    5. Resistant Cases (or allergy to neomycin)
      1. Treatment Course: 10 - 14 days
      2. Quinolone Preparations (instill twice daily)
        1. Ofloxacin 0.3% otic solution (Floxin Otic)
        2. Ofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution (Ocuflox)
        3. Ciprofloxacin 0.3% with Hydrocortisone suspension
        4. Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution (Ciloxan)
      3. Aminoglycoside Preparations (ophthalmic solutions)
        1. Gentamicin sulfate 0.3% (Garamycin)
        2. Tobramycin sulfate 0.3% (Tobrex)
    6. Systemic antibiotic Indications
      1. Otitis Media
      2. Persistent Otitis Externa or Periauricular Cellulitis
        1. Severe pain with fever over 101 F
        2. First generation Cephalosporin (Keflex, Duricef)
      3. Necrotizing Otitis Externa
      4. Immunocompromised condition (e.g. Diabetes Mellitus)
  6. Management: Refractory course
    1. Consider alternative diagnosis (See Otitis Externa)
    2. Consider Consultation with Otolaryngology
  7. Complications
    1. Necrotizing Otitis Externa
    2. Periauricular Cellulitis
    3. Ear Canal Furuncle
    4. Temporal Bone infection <0.5% risk
      1. Requires aggresive care (Life-threatening)
  8. Prevention
    1. See Otitis Externa
  9. References
    1. (2014) Presc Lett 21(6): 35-36
    2. Bojrab (1996) Otolaryngol Clin North Am 29:761-82 [PubMed]
    3. Halpern (1999) J Am Board Fam Pract 12(1):1-7 [PubMed]
    4. Mirza (1996) Postgrad Med 99:153-8 [PubMed]
    5. Rosenfeld (2006) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134 (4 suppl): S4-23 [PubMed]
    6. Sander (2001) Am Fam Physician 63:927-42 [PubMed]
    7. Schaefer (2012) Am Fam Physician 86(11): 1055-61 [PubMed]
    8. Selesnick (1994) Am J Otol 15:408-12 [PubMed]

Bacterial otitis externa (C1699099)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 280221000009107
Dutch otitis externa bacterieel
French Otite externe bactérienne
German bakterielle Otitis externa
Italian Otite esterna batterica
Portuguese Otite externa bacteriana
Spanish Otitis externa bacteriana
Japanese 細菌性外耳炎, サイキンセイガイジエン
Czech Bakteriální otitis externa
Hungarian bacterialis otitis externa
English Otitis externa due to bacteria, Bacterial otitis externa, Bacterial otitis externa (disorder), Otitis externa bacterial
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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