Dermatology Book

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Melanoma Risk Factors

Aka: Melanoma Risk Factors
  1. See Also
    1. Nevus
    2. Congenital Melanocytic Nevus
    3. Atypical Nevus
    4. Melanoma
  2. Risk Factors: Moderate Risk
    1. UV Exposure
      1. Sun Exposure and history of Sunburns
      2. Sun sensitivity
      3. Regular tanning bed use before age 30 years
        1. Tanning beds are considered carcinogens by IARC
        2. Lazovich (2010) Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19(6): 1557-68 [PubMed]
    2. Caucasian skin
      1. White skin:
        1. Men: 30.9 per 100,000 persons
        2. Women: 19.7 women per 100,000 persons
        3. Increased risk: Blond or red hair, Freckles on back
      2. Other races (lower range for women, higher range for men)
        1. See Skin Cancer in Skin of Color
        2. Hispanic: 3.9 to 4.0 per 100,000 persons
        3. American Indian: 3.7 to 3.9 per 100,000 persons
        4. Asian: 1.3 to 1.6 per 100,000 persons
        5. Black: 0.9 to 1.2 per 100,000 persons
        6. Precautions
          1. Despite the lower Incidence, Melanoma often has a delayed presentation in Skin of Color
      3. References
        1. National Cancer Institute - SEER stat fact sheet
          1. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/melan.html
        2. Cress (1997) Cancer Causes Control 8:246-52 [PubMed]
    3. Latitude related
    4. Immunosuppression
    5. Congenital Melanocytic Nevi
    6. Melanoma Family History
      1. First degree relative increases risk 8-12 fold
    7. Blistering Sunburn more than once as child
      1. Whiteman (2001) Cancer Causes Control 12:69-82 [PubMed]
  3. Risk Factors: Very High Risk
    1. Past history of Melanoma (especially <40 years old)
    2. History of 8 moles greater than 6 mm diameter
    3. History of a changing mole
    4. Atypical Nevus syndrome (FAM-M Syndrome, B-K Mole Syndrome) with Family History of Melanoma
    5. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevi (>15-20 cm)
  4. References
    1. Habif (2003) Clinical Dermatology, 4th ed.. Mosby, p. 773-813
    2. Perkins (2015) Am Fam Physician 91(11): 762-7 [PubMed]
    3. Rager (2005) Am Fam Physician 72:269-76 [PubMed]
    4. Shenenberger (2012) Am Fam Physician 85(2): 161-8 [PubMed]

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