Dermatology Book

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Orbital Cellulitis

Aka: Orbital Cellulitis
  1. See Also
    1. Preseptal Cellulitis
    2. Red Eye
  2. Epidemiology
    1. Mean age: 12 years old
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Bacterial Ethmoid Sinusitis extension to involve orbit (60-80% of cases)
      1. Extends via thin medial bony wall into orbit
      2. Extends via retrobulbar veins (no valves) into lids
    2. Typical Organisms
      1. Streptococcus Pneumoniae
      2. Group A Streptococcus
      3. Staphylococcus aureus
      4. Moraxella catarrhalis
      5. HaemophilusInfluenzae (under age 3 years, decreasing due to Immunization)
      6. Mixed Bacterial Infection including Anaerobes
    3. Organisms in immunocompromised patients (e.g. HIV Infection or AIDS)
      1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
      2. Opportunistic fungal infections
  4. Course: Stages
    1. Inflammatory Edema
    2. Orbital Cellulitis
      1. Proptosis
      2. Reduced ocular mobility
    3. Subperiosteal Abscess
    4. Frank Orbital Abscess
  5. Signs
    1. Starts as mild inflammatory edema
      1. URI history
      2. Low grade or absent fever
      3. Slowly progressive clinical course
      4. Swollen and discolored Eyelid
    2. Progresses to orbital involvement
      1. Fever
      2. Proptosis (Exophthalmos)
      3. Pain and limitation of eye Extraocular Movement
        1. Key distinguishing feature from Preseptal Cellulitis
      4. Diplopia on side gaze due to inability to move eye
      5. Marcus Gun Pupil (relative afferent pupilary defect)
        1. Swinging Flashlight Test abnormal (affected pupil constricts less in response to light)
      6. Chemosis
      7. Retinal Exam
        1. Venous dilatation and tortuosity
      8. Papilledema
      9. Decreased Visual Acuity
  6. Imaging
    1. Modalities
      1. CT Sinuses and orbits with IV Contrast (preferred in most cases) or
      2. MRI sinuses and orbits
    2. Indications: Distinguish preseptal from Orbital Cellulitis (and evaluate sinus involvement)
      1. Change in Visual Acuity
      2. Proptosis
      3. Decreased Extraocular Movements
      4. Diplopia
      5. Eye not able to be examined (e.g. due to local Eyelid Edema)
  7. Differential Diagnosis
    1. Preseptal Cellulitis
    2. Orbital pseudotumor
    3. Rhabdomyosarcoma
    4. Neuroblastoma
    5. Leukemia
    6. Lymphoma
    7. Other tumors
      1. Neurofibroma
      2. Glioma of the Optic Nerve
      3. Dermoid cyst
      4. Lymphangioma
      5. Hemangioma
      6. Wilms tumor
  8. Management
    1. General
      1. Observe in hospital with at least daily Visual Acuity and Pupillary Light Reflex
      2. Repeat CT sinuses/orbits if not improved in 48 hours
    2. Antibiotics course: 7-14 days
    3. Parenteral antibiotics (initial 2-3 drug regimen)
      1. Antibiotic 1 (choose 1)
        1. Vancomycin 15-30 mg/kg IV every 8-12 hours (preferred) OR
        2. Daptomycin 6 mg/kg IV every 24 hours OR
        3. Linezolid 600 mg IV every 12 hours
      2. Antibiotic 2 (choose 1 )
        1. Piperacillin-Tazobactam 4.5 g IV every 8 hours OR
        2. Ceftriaxone 2 g IV every 24 hours AND Metronidazole 1 g IV every 12 hours OR
        3. Moxifloxicin 400 mg IV every 24 hours (if Penicillin allergic)
    4. Oral antibiotics (once infection controlled and based on microbiology)
      1. See Preseptal Cellulitis management
      2. Consider additional MRSA coverage (e.g. Septra, doxycyline)
      3. Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (Augmentin)
      4. Cefuroxime (Ceftin) or
      5. Cefpodoxime
      6. Cefprozil (Cefzil)
    5. Surgical drainage indications
      1. Large abscess
      2. Significant symptoms
      3. Insufficient improvement on antibiotics
    6. References
      1. (2017) Sanford Guide, accessed on IOS 2/2/2017
      2. Carlisle (2015) Am Fam Physician 92(2): 106-12 [PubMed]
  9. Complications
    1. Endophthalmitis (risk of permanent Vision Loss)
    2. Epidural Abscess or subdural abscess
    3. Meningitis
    4. Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis or Dural sinus thrombosis
      1. May present first with Cranial Nerve 6 palsy (Abducens Nerve palsy), unable to gaze laterally
  10. Prognosis
    1. Advanced AIDS
      1. Associated with poor outcomes related to pseudomonas and opportunistic fungal infections
      2. Johnson (1999) Arch Ophthalmol 117(1): 57-64 [PubMed]
  11. References
    1. Williams (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(2): 3-12
    2. Givner (2002) Pediatr Infect Dis 21:1157-8 [PubMed]
    3. Micek (2007) Clin Infect Dis 45:S184-90 [PubMed]
    4. Tovilla-Canales (2001) Curr Opin Ophthalmol 12:335-41 [PubMed]

Orbital Cellulitis (C0149507)

Definition (MSHCZE) Zánět pojivové tkáně očnice (flegmona), ve které je výrazně zastoupena tkáň tuková. Závažné akutní onemocnění vznikající větš. sekundárně šířením infekce z oblasti obličeje (např. víček, rtů) či paranazálních dutin. Z orbity je možné další šíření infekce do nitrolební dutiny vč. trombózy kavernózního sinu. Vyvolavateli jsou obv. bakterie způsobující hnisavé záněty v těchto oblastech (stafylokok, pyogenní streptokok, pneumokok, Haemophilus influenzae). Projevuje se celkovými příznaky a bolestí, lokálně je patrný otok a zarudnutí víček a okolí, protruze a deviace bulbu, omezení jeho pohyblivosti atd. Léčba musí být energická s vysokými dávkami antibiotik a mnohdy chirurgickým zákrokem, obv. společně s léčbou ORL. Komplikacemi kromě šíření infekce je neuritida optiku, trombóza žil oka a následná slepota. (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) An acute bacterial infectious process that affects the tissues surrounding the eye, including the eyelids, the eyebrow, and the cheek tissues. It is usually caused by Haemophilus influenza, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci. Signs and symptoms include swelling and pain of the eyelids, pain in the eye, painful eye movements, decreased vision, and fever. It is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention.
Definition (MSH) Inflammation of the loose connective tissues around the ORBIT, bony structure around the eyeball. It is characterized by PAIN; EDEMA of the CONJUNCTIVA; swelling of the EYELIDS; EXOPHTHALMOS; limited eye movement; and loss of vision.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D054517
ICD9 376.01
ICD10 H05.01
SnomedCT 194005002
Dutch orbitacellulitis, cellulitis; orbita, orbita; cellulitis, oogkascellulitis
French Cellulite orbitale, Cellulite orbitaire, Cellulite de l'orbite
Portuguese Celulite da órbita, Celulite Orbitária, Celulite da Órbita, Celulite Orbital, Celulite orbitária
Japanese ガンカホウソウエン, 蜂窩織炎-眼窩, 眼窩蜂巣炎, 眼窩蜂窩織炎
English Cellulitis, Orbital, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitides, Cellulitides, Orbital, orbital cellulitis, orbital cellulitis (diagnosis), Cellulitis orbital, Cellulitis of orbit, Postseptal orbital cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis [Disease/Finding], cellulitis orbital, Orbital cellulitis, Orbital cellulitis (disorder), cellulitis; orbit, orbit; cellulitis
Spanish Celulitis Orbitaria, celulitis postseptal, celulitis orbitaria postseptal, celulitis orbitaria (trastorno), celulitis orbitaria, Celulitis orbital
Finnish Silmäkuopan selluliitti
German Orbitalphlegmone, Zellulitis des Auges
Italian Cellulite orbitale
Russian ГЛАЗНИЦЫ ЦЕЛЛЮЛИТ, ЦЕЛЛЮЛИТ ГЛАЗНИЦЫ, GLAZNITSY TSELLIULIT, TSELLIULIT GLAZNITSY
Czech Orbitální celulitida, flegmona očnice, orbitocelulitida, orbita - celulitida
Swedish Ögonhålecellulit
Polish Zapalenie tkanki łącznej oczodołu
Hungarian Orbitalis cellulitis, orbitalis cellulitis
Norwegian Øyehulecellulitt, Orbital cellulitt, Cellulitt i øyehulen
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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