Cardiovascular Medicine Book

Information Resources

http://www.fpnotebook.com/

Ventricular Tachycardia Management in the Adult

Aka: Ventricular Tachycardia Management in the Adult, Torsades de Pointes, Torsades
  1. See Also
    1. Ventricular Tachycardia Management in the Child
    2. Unstable Tachycardia
    3. Narrow Complex Tachycardia
    4. Wide Complex Tachycardia
  2. Indications: Wide Complex Tachycardia in Adults
    1. Tachycardia (typically >150 bpm) AND
    2. Wide QRS Complex (duration at least 0.12 sec)
  3. Precautions: SVT with aberrancy
    1. Manage Wide Complex Tachycardia as Ventricular Tachycardia
    2. Algorithms (e.g. Griffith, Brugada, Bayesian) are inadequate
      1. Cannot distinguish VT from SVT with aberrancy (or RBBB) - miss rates of 6-7% at best
      2. Jastrezbski (2012) Europace 14(8): 1165-71 [PubMed]
      3. Szelenyi (2013) Acad Emerg Med 20(11): 1121-30 [PubMed]
    3. Consequence of treating Ventricular Tachycardia as SVT (e.g. with Calcium Channel Blocker) can be lethal
      1. In contrast, treating SVT with aberrancy with an Antiarrhythmic (e.g. Procainamide) is unlikely to cause harm
    4. Adenosine use in Wide Complex Tachycardia is also controversial
      1. Ventricular Tachycardia will convert to sinus rhythm with Adenosine in 5-10% of cases
      2. Conversion with Adenosine leads to incorrect conclusion that the underlying rhythm was SVT with aberrancy
      3. May result in missed VT diagnosis
        1. Misses associated telemetry admission, Antiarrhythmics and electrophysiology evaluation
      4. Amal Mattu recommends not using Adenosine in Wide Complex Tachycardia
        1. Risk of masking potentially lethal VT in up to 10% of cases
    5. References
      1. Mattu in Herbert (2014) EM:Rap 14(7): 4-5, 13-14
  4. Approach: General
    1. ABC Management with IV-O2-Monitor is paramount in all cases
    2. No pulse
      1. Treat as Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia
    3. Unstable (Hypotension, ALOC, ischemic Chest Pain or acute CHF)
      1. Treat as Unstable Ventricular Tachycardia
      2. Administer Synchronized Cardioversion
    4. Stable
      1. Assess QRS Complex morphology
      2. Treat per protocols below
        1. Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
        2. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
  5. Approach: Wide Complex Tachycardia (key question is 'regular or irregular')
    1. Unstable Wide Complex Tachycardia
      1. Synchronized Cardioversion (or asynchronized, Defibrillation if not responding)
    2. Stable Wide Complex Tachycardia (see each approach described in sections below)
      1. Irregular Wide Complex Tachycardia
      2. Regular Wide Complex Tachycardia
  6. Approach: Irregular Wide Complex Tachycardia (stable)
    1. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
      1. INITIAL Steps
        1. Immediate Defibrillation (non-Synchronized Cardioversion)
        2. Differentiation based on QT Interval is directed at prevention of recurrent arrhythmia
      2. Prolonged QT interval (on baseline EKG): Torsades de Pointes
        1. Give Magnesium 2 grams IV
          1. May be repeated in 5-15 minutes
          2. May be continued as infusion Magnesium 3 to 20 mg/min IV for Prolonged QTc
        2. Correct other electrolyte abnormalities (5H5T)
        3. Stop all medications that prolong QT Interval
        4. Reverse toxic ingestions and Poisonings
        5. Consider overdrive pacing to Heart Rate of 100 bpm
        6. Avoid Isoproterenol (used historically)
      3. Normal QT Interval (on baseline EKG)
        1. Myocardial Ischemia (most common)
          1. Beta Blockers
          2. Emergent cardiac catheterization for revascularization
          3. Consider Amiodarone 150 mg IV
        2. Catecholaminergic Ventricular Tachycardia
          1. Consider Beta Blockers
        3. Brugada Syndrome
          1. Consider Isoproterenol
    2. Pre-excited Atrial Fibrillation (antegrade conduction via accessory pathway, e.g. WPW)
      1. Avoid AV Nodal blockers (Beta Blockers, Diltiazem, Verapamil, Digoxin, Adenosine)
      2. Consult with local experts
      3. Rapid Heart Rate typically requires electrical cardioversion
      4. Consider Amiodarone 150 mg IV
    3. Atrial Fibrillation with aberrancy
      1. Treat as Narrow Complex Tachycardia only if can rule-out pre-excited Atrial Fibrillation
  7. Approach: Regular Wide Complex Tachycardia (stable)
    1. INITIAL: Adenosine (or go to below under Ventricular Tachycardia)
      1. AVOID if polymorphic or irregular Wide Complex Tachycardia (can degenerate to VF)
        1. Some experts recommend avoiding Adenosine in all cases of Ventricular Tachycardia (see precautions above)
      2. Dose: 6 mg IV (may repeat with up to two 12 mg IV doses)
      3. Effect
        1. SVT (or aberrancy): converts or at least slows rhythm for interpretation
        2. VT: no effect (unless irregular, in which case could degenerate into VF)
    2. Ventricular Tachycardia (assume until proven otherwise)
      1. Synchronized Cardioversion if unstable or refractory to measures below
      2. Recommended agents for chemical cardioversion
        1. Procainamide
          1. Preferred if not contraindicated
            1. Zipes (2006) Circulation 114(10): e385-484 [PubMed]
          2. AVOID in Prolonged QT or CHF
          3. Loading Dose 50 mg/min
            1. Target: Until successful, Hypotension, or QRS widens >50%
            2. May slow rate to 20 mg/min (or stop and restart slowly) if QRS Widening or QT Prolongation occurs during infusion
            3. Maximum: Cummulative dose 17 mg/kg (or ~1 gram)
          4. Maintenance: 1-4 mg/min
            1. Post-cardioversion Antiarrhythmic infusion may be replaced with Beta Blocker instead (see below)
        2. Amiodarone
          1. Preferred in CHF or Prolonged QT (but effective in only 20% of cases)
          2. Dose 150 mg IV over 10 minutes
          3. Maintenance: 1 mg/min for 6 hours
            1. Post-cardioversion Antiarrhythmic infusion may be replaced with Beta Blocker instead (see below)
        3. Sotalol
          1. AVOID in Prolonged QT
          2. Dose 1.5 mg/kg up to 100 mg over 5 minutes
      3. Post-Cardioversion (chemical or electrical) management
        1. Beta Blocker (Metoprolol or Esmolol)
          1. Consider starting after successful cardioversion (not before due to negative inotropy)
          2. Suppresses Ventricular Tachycardia associated Catecholamine surges
          3. Consider in place of Antiarrhythmic infusions listed above
  8. References
    1. Mattu in Majoewsky (2013) EM:Rap 13(9): 7
    2. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Guidelines
      1. http://www.circulationaha.org
      2. (2010) Guidelines for CPR and ECC [PubMed]
      3. (2000) Circulation, 102(Suppl I):86-9 [PubMed]

Tachycardia, Ventricular (C0042514)

Definition (NCI) A disorder characterized by an electrocardiographic finding of three or more consecutive complexes of ventricular origin with a rate greater than a certain threshold (100 or 120 beats per minute are commonly used). The QRS complexes are wide and have an abnormal morphology. (CDISC)
Definition (NCI_CTCAE) A disorder characterized by a dysrhythmia with a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute that originates distal to the bundle of His.
Definition (NCI_FDA) An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm with aberrant ventricular excitation, usually in excess of 150 beats per minute.
Definition (MSH) An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
Concepts Pathologic Function (T046)
MSH D017180
ICD10 I47.2
SnomedCT 195075005, 6624005, 155370003, 25569003
English Tachycardia, Ventricular, TACHYCARDIA VENTRICULAR, Tachycardias, Ventricular, Ventricular Tachycardias, Ventricular Tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia (diagnosis), ventricular tachycardia, V.tach, Tachycardia ventricular, Tachycardia, ventricular, Tachycardia, Ventricular [Disease/Finding], v tach, vt, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia (V-tach), Ventricular tachycardia (Vtach), Tachycardia - ventric., Ventricular tachyarrhythmia (disorder), Ventricular techycardia, VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, Ventricular tachycardia, VT - Ventricular tachycardia, Ventricular tachycardia (disorder), Ventricular tachyarrhythmia, tachycardia; ventricular, ventricular; tachycardia, Ventricular tachycardia, NOS, Tachycardia;ventricular
French TACHYCARDIE VENTRICULAIRE, Tachyarythmie ventriculaire, V.tach, Tachycardie ventriculaire
Portuguese TAQUICARDIA VENTRICULAR, Taquiarritmia ventricular, Taquicardia ventricular, Taquicardia Ventricular
Spanish TAQUICARDIA VENTRICULAR, Taquiarritmia ventricular, Taquicardia V, taquiarritmia ventricular, taquiarritmia ventricular (trastorno), taquicardia ventricular (trastorno), taquicardia ventricular, Taquicardia ventricular, Taquicardia Ventricular
Dutch ventriculaire tachyaritmie, ventrikeltachycardie, tachycardie; ventriculair, ventriculair; tachycardie, ventriculaire tachycardie, Ritmestoornis, Tachycardie, ventriculaire, Ventriculaire tachycardie
German Kammer-Tachyarrhythmie, V.tach, TACHYKARDIE VENTRIKULAER, Ventrikulaere Tachykardie, Tachykardie ventrikulaer, Tachykardie, ventrikuläre
Italian Tachiaritmia ventricolare, Tachicardia ventricolare
Japanese 心室性頻脈性不整脈, シンシツセイヒンミャク, シンシツセイヒンミャクセイフセイミャク, 心室性頻拍, 頻拍-心室性, 心室性頻拍症, 心室性頻脈, 心室頻拍, 心室頻拍症, 心室頻脈, 発作性心室性頻拍, 発作性心室性頻拍症, 発作性心室頻拍, 発作性心室頻拍症
Swedish Kammartakykardi
Finnish Kammiotakykardia
Russian TAKHIKARDIIA VENTRIKULIARNAIA, TAKHIKARDIIA ZHELUDOCHKOVAIA PAROKSIZMAL'NAIA, ТАХИКАРДИЯ ВЕНТРИКУЛЯРНАЯ, ТАХИКАРДИЯ ЖЕЛУДОЧКОВАЯ ПАРОКСИЗМАЛЬНАЯ
Czech Ventrikulární tachyarytmie, Tachykardie komorová, Komorová tachykardie, KT, VT, komorová tachykardie, tachykardie komorová
Korean 심실성 빠른맥
Croatian TAHIKARDIJA, VENTRIKULARNA
Polish VT, Tachykardia komorowa, Częstoskurcz komorowy
Hungarian Ventricularis tachyarrhythmia, Tachycardia,ventricularis, V . Tach., Ventricularis tachycardia
Norwegian Ventrikkeltakykardi, Takykardi, ventrikkel-, Ventrikulær takykardi
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


You are currently viewing the original 'fpnotebook.com\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree