II. Pathophysiology

  1. Genus: Flavivirus
  2. Regions involved (CDC)
    1. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html
  3. Transmission
    1. Mosquito Bite by infected Aedes albopictus Mosquito (breeds in water containers)
      1. Primates are natural virus reservoir
      2. During epidemics, human to Mosquito to human transmission
    2. Other transmission
      1. In-utero and perinatal transmission
      2. Transfusion
      3. Sexually transmitted

III. Symptoms

  1. Asymptomatic in most cases
  2. Common symptomatic presentation (mild symptoms for up to 1 week)
    1. Fever
    2. Conjunctivitis
    3. Maculopapular rash
    4. Arthralgia
  3. Associated symptoms
    1. Headache
    2. Myalgias

V. Labs

  1. CDC Zika Diagnostics
    1. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/diagnostic.html
  2. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR
    1. Preferred test in first 2 weeks
  3. Serum Zika IgM
    1. False negatives in first 2 weeks
    2. False positives with Flavivirus Infection

VI. Management

  1. Exclude serious causes in differential (e.g. Dengue Fever)
  2. Supportive Care
  3. Analgesics (e.g. NSAIDs, Acetaminophen)
  4. Avoid Aspirin
  5. Hydration
  6. Reduce transmission to others
    1. Prevent further Mosquito Bites during acute Zika Virus infection

VII. Complications

  1. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (also occurs with West Nile Virus)
  2. Microcephaly in newborns
    1. Perinatal or in utero transmission from mothers infected during pregnancy
    2. Identified in winter of 2015-16 in Brazil, with thousands of new Microcephaly cases

VIII. Prevention

  1. See Prevention of Vector-borne Infection
  2. Guidance for pregnant women with Zika Exposure (CDC)
    1. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6512e2.htm?s_cid=mm6512e2_w.htm
  3. Men should use Condoms to prevent transmission
    1. Use Condoms for 6 months after Zika infection
    2. Use Condoms for 8 weeks after traveling to Zika endemic region

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Ontology: Zika virus disease (disorder) (C0276289)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 3928002
English zika virus (diagnosis), zika virus, Zika virus disease (disorder), Zika fever, Zika virus disease, Zika; fever, fever; Zika, Mosquito-borne viral fever, Zika
Dutch Zika; koorts, koorts; Zika
Spanish enfermedad por virus Zika (trastorno), enfermedad por virus Zika, fiebre Zika