II. Epidemiology

  1. Patients report musculoskeletal symptoms: 75%
  2. Severe rheumatologic disease is rare HIV complication

III. Associated Conditions: HIV Associated Rheumatic Conditions

  1. Osteoporosis
    1. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Increased Fracture risk by 15-50%
    2. Contributing factors include lower body weight, chronic inflammation, low CD4 Counts, Tobacco abuse
    3. Osteomalacia and Vitamin D Deficiency is found in 80% of patients with HIV Infection
    4. Antiretroviral therapy alone is associated with a 2-6% decrease in Bone Mineral Density in first 2 years of use
      1. Highest risk with TDF, Efavirenz, boosted Protease Inhibitors
      2. Brown (2015) Clin Infect Dis 60(8): 1242-51 [PubMed]
  2. Other conditions
    1. Myalgias
    2. Myopathies
    3. Myositis
    4. Arthralgias
    5. Septic Arthritis
    6. Reiter's Syndrome
    7. Spondyloarthropathy
    8. Psoriatic Arthritis
    9. Reactive Arthritis
    10. Sjogren's Syndrome
    11. Vasculitis
    12. Diffuse infiltrative Lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS)

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