II. Class B: No risk in controlled animal studies

III. Class C: Small risk in controlled animal studies

  1. Antiplatelet Medications
    1. Clopidogrel (Plavix) - not in Briggs (1998)
    2. Dipyridamole (Persantine)
    3. Ticlopidine (Ticlid) - not in Briggs (1998)
  2. Chemotherapeutics
    1. Asparaginase
    2. Dacarbazine
    3. Dactinomycin
    4. Interferon alfa

IV. Class D: Strong evidence of risk to the human fetus

  1. Chemotherapeutics
    1. Bleomycin
    2. Cisplatin
    3. Cyclophosphamide
    4. Cytarabine
    5. Daunorubicin
    6. Doxorubicin
    7. Etoposide
    8. Fluorouracil
    9. Hydroxyurea
    10. Melphalan
    11. Mercaptopurine
    12. Methotrexate
    13. Plicamycin
    14. Tamoxifen
    15. Vinblastine
    16. Vincristine
  2. Miscellaneous Agents
    1. EDTA - Not in Briggs (1998)
    2. Penicillamine
  3. Anticoagulants
    1. Coumadin (Warfarin)
    2. Dicumarol

V. Class X: Very high risk to the human fetus

  1. Leuprolide (Lupron)
  2. Aminopterin

VI. References

  1. Briggs (1998) Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation, 5th ed
  2. Larimore (2000) Prim Care 27(1):35-53 [PubMed]

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