II. Prevention: Protective Factors

  1. High parity
  2. Normal body weight (BMI 20-24)
  3. Oral Contraceptive use for one or more years
    1. Avoid Unopposed Estrogen
    2. Estrogen Replacement Therapy should be accompanied by Progesterone

III. Risk Factors

  1. Menstrual History
    1. Early Menarche (under age 12): 1.5 to 2 fold Relative Risk
    2. Nulliparity: 2 to 3 fold Relative Risk
    3. Late Menopause (over age 52): 2.4 fold Relative Risk
    4. Bloody Menopause: 4 fold Relative Risk
  2. Obesity
    1. Obese women account for 70% of early stage Endometrial Cancer
    2. Endometrial Cancer mortality increases with Body Mass Index
    3. Overweight 21-50 pounds: 3.0 fold Relative Risk
    4. Overweight more than 50 pounds: 10 fold Relative Risk
    5. Increased BMI compared to women with BMI 20 to 24
      1. BMI 30-34: 1.7 Relative Risk
      2. BMI 35-39: 4.3 Relative Risk
      3. BMI >40: 6.4 Relative Risk
  3. Anovulation or PCOS and related conditions
    1. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Stein Leventhal Syndrome)
    2. Chronic Anovulation
    3. Hirsutism: 2 fold Relative Risk
  4. Exogenous hormones
    1. Unopposed Estrogen: 9.5 fold Relative Risk
    2. Tamoxifen: 2.3 fold Relative Risk
  5. Familial history of cancer
    1. Hereditary nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC, Lynch Syndrome): High risk
    2. Family history Endometrial Cancer
  6. Age related risks
    1. Risk roughly doubles every 5 years after age 30
    2. Ages 15 to 18 years: rare
    3. Ages 30 to 34 years: 2.8 cases per 100,000
    4. Ages 35 to 39 years: 6.1 cases per 100,000
    5. Ages 40 to 44 years: 12.5 cases per 100,000
    6. Ages 45 to 49 years: 24.0 cases per 100,000
    7. Ages 50 to 54 years: 47.9 cases per 100,000
    8. Ages 55 to 59 years: 68.4 cases per 100,000
    9. Ages 60 to 64 years: 86.5 cases per 100,000
    10. Ages 65 to 69 years: 94.4 cases per 100,000
    11. Ages 70 to 74 years: 101.9 cases per 100,000
    12. SEER Cancer statistics
      1. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2000
  7. Other risks
    1. Diabetes Mellitus: 2.8 fold Relative Risk
    2. Hypertension: 1.5 fold Relative Risk
    3. Liver disease
    4. Hypothyroidism
    5. Alcohol Abuse
    6. History of pelvic irradiation

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window