II. Pathophysiology

  1. Liver Cirrhosis with Portal Hypertension
  2. Results from congenital patency of umbilical vessels

III. Symptoms and Signs

  1. Esophageal Varices
    1. Hematemesis
  2. Cirrhosis
    1. Ascites
    2. Splenomegaly
    3. Hypersplenism
  3. Skin
    1. Caput medusae
    2. Large tortuous veins in abdominal wall
  4. Cardiovascular
    1. Venous Hum at xiphoid process
      1. Changes with Valsalva Maneuver
    2. Thrill at xiphoid process

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