II. Risk Factors

  1. Travel to endemic areas of Waterborne Illness
  2. Hiking in wilderness areas (especially drinking from mountain streams)
  3. Intake
    1. Untreated water
    2. Unpasteurized dairy products

III. Causes: Waterborne Diarrheal infection

  1. Bacteria
    1. Escherichia coli (rapid onset 12-72 hours)
    2. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (rapid onset 12-36 hours)
    3. Shigella (Intermediate onset 1-3 days)
    4. Yersinia enterocolitica (slow onset 3-7 days)
    5. Campylobacter jejuni (Intermediate onset 3-5 days)
    6. Leptospira (onset delayed 4-19 days)
    7. Brucellosis
    8. Vibrio Cholera
    9. Aeromonas
  2. Virus
    1. Hepatitis A (delayed onset 15 to 50 days)
    2. Norovirus (rapid onset 12-48 hours)
  3. Protozoa
    1. Giardia lamblia (Onset delayed 5-25 days)
      1. Giardia lamblia
      2. Giardia intestinalis
    2. Cryptosporidium parvum (Onset delayed 2-10 days)
    3. Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis)

IV. Prevention

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