II. Definition: Bowel distention based on abdominal XRay

  1. Rectosigmoid or descending colon >6.5 cm diameter or
  2. Ascending colon >8 cm diameter or
  3. Cecal diameter >12 cm

III. Causes

  1. Toxic Megacolon
    1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
      1. Ulcerative Colitis
      2. Crohn's Disease
    2. Infectious colitis
      1. Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
      2. Amebic colitis
  2. Congenital Megacolon (Hirschsprung's Disease)
  3. Acquired Megacolon
    1. Idiopathic Megacolon
    2. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chaga's Disease)
      1. Incidence in U.S. is increasing
    3. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction (colon dysmotility)
      1. Acute due to medical cause (Ogilvie's Syndrome)
      2. Acute Causes
        1. Abdominal or orthopedic surgery
        2. Spinal cord injury
        3. Serious cardiovascular disorder

IV. References

  1. Phillips in Feldman (1998) GI Disease, p. 1810-12

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Ontology: Megacolon (C0025160)

Definition (MSHCZE) Výrazné chorobné rozšíření tlustého střeva. Vrozené při poruše nervových buněk ve stěně střeva s poruchou vyprazdňování (megacolon congenitum, Hirschsprungova nemoc), nebo získané v důsledku některých střevních chorob, např. jako závažná komplikace ulcerózní kolitidy (toxické m.). (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (MSH) Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D008531
ICD10 K59.3
SnomedCT 197144003
English Megacolons, megacolon, megacolon (diagnosis), Dilatation of colon, Megacolon [Disease/Finding], acquired megacolon, megarectum, colectasia, idiopathic megacolon, Megacolon NOS (disorder), colon; dilatation, dilatation; colon, Megacolon, Megacolon NOS, Colectasia
Dutch megacolon, megacolon NAO, colectasie, colon; dilatatie, dilatatie; colon, Megacolon
Italian Colon ingrandito, Megacolon NAS, Dilatazione del colon, Megacolon
French Mégacôlon SAI, Coléctasie, Mégacôlon
German Megakolon NNB, Kolektasie, Megakolon
Portuguese Megacólon NE, Colectasia, Megacólon, Megacolo
Spanish Megacolon NEOM, Colectasia, megacolon, SAI, megacolon, SAI (trastorno), Megacolon
Japanese 巨大結腸, 結腸拡張, 巨大結腸NOS, キョダイケッチョウNOS, ケッチョウカクチョウ, キョダイケッチョウ
Swedish Megakolon
Czech megakolon, Megakolon, Kolektázie, Megakolon NOS
Finnish Megakoolon
Russian MEGAKOLON, МЕГАКОЛОН
Croatian MEGAKOLON
Polish Okrężnica olbrzymia
Hungarian Megacolon k.m.n., Colectasia, Megacolon
Norwegian Megakolon, Megacolon

Ontology: Megarectum (C1456333)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 3246003, 33995003
Dutch megarectum
French Mégarectum
German Megarektum
Italian Megaretto
Portuguese Megarrecto
Spanish Megarecto, megarrecto (concepto no activo), megarrecto
Japanese 巨大直腸, キョダイチョクチョウ
Czech Megarectum
Hungarian Megarectum
English Megarectum (disorder), megarectum, Megarectum