II. Images

  1. Globe
    1. eyeGlobeXsGrayBB869.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. eyeCorneaLensGrayBB883.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    3. eyeSagittalXsGrayBB888.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    4. eyeSagittalXsGrayBB891.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  2. Iris
    1. eyeIrisGrayBB875.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  3. Nerves
    1. See Neurologic Anatomy of the Eye
  4. Extraocular Motor
    1. See Extraocular Movement
  5. Choroid
    1. See Choroid Anatomy
    2. See Vascular Anatomy of the Eye
  6. Vessels
    1. See Vascular Anatomy of the Eye
  7. Retina
    1. See Retinal Anatomy
  8. Lacrimal and lids
    1. See Lacrimal Anatomy
  9. Lids
    1. See Lid Anatomy

III. Anatomy: General

  1. Eyelids
    1. Both lids contain a tarsal plate with Meibomian glands
    2. Lids join at medial and lateral canthi
  2. Sclera
    1. See Sclera
    2. Thick, protective outer coat of the eye underlying the Conjunctiva
    3. Normally white (with possible bluish discoloration) and opaque
    4. Scleral inflammation is very painful, and associated with Vision Loss
  3. Episclera
    1. Covers the anterior Sclera and lacks the Scleral bluish discoloration
    2. Continuous with the Cornea
    3. Episcleral inflammation is not typically painful, and does not cause vision change
  4. Limbus
    1. Corneal-Scleral junction
  5. Iris
    1. Pigmented light filter
    2. Muscular aperture of the eye controlling the size of the pupil
  6. Pupil
    1. Central hole or shutter within the iris
    2. Size is controlled by iris constriction (Miosis) and relaxation (Mydriasis)
    3. Size of the pupil determines amount of light exposure on the Retina
  7. Conjunctiva: Thin, vascular tissue
    1. Covers inner lid lining (palpebral Conjunctiva)
    2. Covers Sclera (bulbar Conjunctiva)
  8. Cornea
    1. See Refractive Error
    2. See Cornea
    3. Transparent front refractive window of eye
  9. Macula and Fovea
    1. Macula is fine central vision area at posterior pole
    2. Fovea is oval depression at center of Macula

IV. Anatomy: Extraocular Muscles: Innervated by CN 3 with 2 exceptions

  1. See Extraocular Movement
  2. Medial Range of Motion
    1. Medial Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
  3. Lateral Range of Motion
    1. Lateral Rectus (Cranial Nerve VI)
  4. Upward Range of Motion
    1. Superior Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
    2. Inferior Oblique (Cranial Nerve III)
  5. Downward Range of Motion
    1. Inferior Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
    2. Superior Oblique (Cranial Nerve IV)

V. Anatomy: Chambers

  1. Anterior Chamber
    1. Between Cornea and iris
    2. Contains Aqueous Humor
  2. Posterior Chamber
    1. Between iris and zonulae (very small space)
  3. Ciliary body
    1. Produces Aqueous Humor
    2. Suspends lens by zonulae
  4. Aqueous Humor related anatomy
    1. Aqueous Humor
      1. Clear fluid that fills anterior and posterior chamber
      2. Produced by ciliary body
      3. Passes through pupil
      4. Drains via trabecular meshwork (at outflow angle)
    2. Aqueous Outflow Angle
      1. Intersection of Cornea, iris, and ciliary body
      2. Blockage results in Glaucoma
  5. Vitreous Cavity
    1. Large space (4.5cc) between lens and Retina
    2. Contains transparent gel (vitreous humor)

VI. Anatomy: Vascular

  1. Choroid
    1. Vascular pigmented tissue between Sclera and Retina
    2. Vascular supply for outer Retina
  2. Avascular structures of the eye
    1. Lens
    2. Anterior vitreous
    3. Corneal Endothelium

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Ontology: Aqueous Humor (C0003662)

Definition (FMA) Body substance in liquid state contained in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eyeball.
Definition (UWDA) Body substance in liquid state contained in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eyeball.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The watery fluid which is present in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) The watery fluid which is present in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye.
Definition (MSH) The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
Concepts Body Substance (T031)
MSH D001082
SnomedCT 425460003, 87321005
English Aqueous Humor, Aqueous Humors, Humor, Aqueous, Humors, Aqueous, Fluid, Intraocular, Fluids, Intraocular, Intraocular Fluid, Intraocular Fluids, Aqueous humor, Aqueous humor (substance), Aqueous humour, Humor aquosus, intraocular fluid, aqueous humour, Portion of aqueous humor, Aqueous humor of eyeball, AQUEOUS HUMOR, Structure of aqueous humor (body structure), Structure of aqueous humor, Structure of aqueous humour, aqueous humor
Swedish Kammarvatten
Czech komorová voda
Spanish humor acuoso, humor acuoso (sustancia), estructura del humor acuoso (estructura corporal), estructura del humor acuoso, Humor Acuoso, Líquido Intraocular
Finnish Kammioneste
Russian VNUTRIGLAZNAIA ZHIDKOST', KAMERNAIA VLAGA, VODIANISTAIA VLAGA, ВНУТРИГЛАЗНАЯ ЖИДКОСТЬ, ВОДЯНИСТАЯ ВЛАГА, КАМЕРНАЯ ВЛАГА
Japanese 眼房水, 前房微塵, 房水フレア, 房水, 眼房水フレア, 前房フレア
Italian Fluido intraoculare, Umore acqueo
Croatian OČNA VODICA
Portuguese Líquido Intraocular, Fluido Intraocular, Humor Aquoso
Polish Ciecz wodnista
French Fluide intraoculaire, Humeur aqueuse
Norwegian Væske i øyekammer, Humor aquosus, Kammervann, Kammervæske
German Humor aquosus, Kammerwasser
Dutch Humor aquosus, Kamerwater, Intraoculair vocht

Ontology: Conjunctival Diseases (C0009759)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D003229
ICD9 372.9, 372
ICD10 H10-H13.9 , H11.9, H10-H11
SnomedCT 194583004, 155161009, 155169006, 193906005, 267735001, 59698003
English Conjunctival Diseases, Disease, Conjunctival, Diseases, Conjunctival, Unspecified disorder of conjunctiva, Disorders of conjunctiva, Conjunctival disorder NOS, Disorder of conjunctiva, unspecified, CONJUNCTIVAL DIS, Disorders of conjunctiva NOS, disorder of conjunctiva, disorder of conjunctiva (diagnosis), Conjunctiva disorder NOS, Conjunctival Diseases [Disease/Finding], conjunctiva diseases, disease conjunctival, conjunctival diseases, conjunctiva disease, conjunctival disorders, disease conjunctiva, Disorders of conjunctiva (H10-H11), Conjunctival disorder NOS (disorder), Conjunctiva--Diseases, Conjunctival disorder, Disorder of conjunctiva, Disease of conjunctiva, Disorder of conjunctiva (disorder), conjunctiva; disorder, disease (or disorder); conjunctiva, Disorder of conjunctiva, NOS, Conjunctival Disease, Conjunctival Disorder
Italian Patologia della congiuntiva, Affezione della congiuntiva non specificata, Patologia della congiuntiva NAS, Malattie della congiuntiva
Dutch aandoening van conjunctiva, conjunctiva-aandoening NAO, niet-gespecificeerde aandoening van conjunctiva, aandoening; conjunctiva, conjunctiva; aandoening, Aandoening van conjunctiva, niet gespecificeerd, conjunctiva-aandoening, Conjunctivaziekte, Conjunctivaziekten, Ziekte, conjunctiva-, Ziekten, conjunctiva-
French Affection non précisée de la conjonctive, Atteintes de la conjonctive, Trouble conjonctival SAI, Trouble conjonctival, Maladies conjonctivales, Maladies de la conjonctive
German unspezifische Erkrankungen der Bindehaut, Erkrankungen der Bindehaut, Erkrankung der Bindehaut NNB, Affektion der Konjunktiva, nicht naeher bezeichnet, Erkrankung der Bindehaut, Bindehautkrankheiten, Konjunktivakrankheiten, Augenbindehaut-Krankheiten
Portuguese Alteração da conjuntiva NE, Afecções da conjuntiva, Afecção NE da conjuntiva, Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva, Doenças da Conjuntiva, Alteração da conjuntiva
Spanish Trastorno no especificado de la conjuntiva, Trastornos de la conjuntiva, Trastorno conjuntival NEOM, trastorno conjuntival, SAI (trastorno), trastorno conjuntival, SAI, trastorno de la conjuntiva (trastorno), trastorno de la conjuntiva, Trastorno conjuntival, Enfermedades de la Conjuntiva
Japanese 結膜障害NOS, 詳細不明の結膜障害, 結膜障害, ケツマクショウガイ, ショウサイフメイノケツマクショウガイ, ケツマクショウガイNOS
Swedish Bindhinnesjukdomar
Finnish Sidekalvon sairaudet
Russian KON"IUNKTIVY BOLEZNI, КОНЪЮНКТИВЫ БОЛЕЗНИ
Czech Onemocnění spojivky NOS, Onemocnění spojivky, Nespecifikované onemocnění spojivky, konjunktiva - nemoci, nemoci spojivky, nemoci konjunktivy, spojivka - nemoci, onemocnění oční spojivky
Korean 상세불명의 결막의 장애
Croatian Not Translated[Conjunctival Diseases]
Polish Choroby spojówek
Hungarian Conjunctiva betegségek, Nem meghatározottconjunctiva betegség, Conjunctivalis betegség, Conjunctivalis betegség k.m.n.
Norwegian Sykdommer i konjunktiva, Konjunktivale sykdommer, Bindehinnesykdommer, Konjunktivalsykdommer

Ontology: Eye (C0015392)

Definition (FMA) Organ with organ cavity which is connected to the optic nerve. Examples: There are only two eyeballs, the right and the left eyeballs..
Definition (UWDA) Organ with organ cavity which is connected to the optic nerve. Examples: There are only two eyeballs, the right and the left eyeballs..
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The organ of sight or vision. (NCI)
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) Having to do with the eye.
Definition (NCI) The organ of sight or vision.
Definition (CSP) organ of vision.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D005123
SnomedCT 81745001, 367568005, 276432009, 371398005
HL7 EYE
LNC LP7218-3, LP7222-5, LP7797-6, LP117007-7, MTHU000064, MTHU001430, MTHU001409, MTHU038905
English Eye, Globe, Eyes, Ophthalmic, Optic, Structure of eye proper, Bulbus oculi, Structure of eyeball, Ocular, eyes, eyeballs, globe, ocular, eye, eyeball, Eye (body structure), Oculus, ophthalmic, EYE, Eyeball, Eye structure, Eyeball structure, Ocular structure, Structure of eye proper (body structure), Eye, NOS, Eye structure (body structure), Eye (Anatomy)
French Yeux, Oeil
Swedish Öga
Czech oči, oko
Finnish Silmä
Russian GLAZ, ГЛАЗ
Croatian OKO
Latvian Acs
Polish Oczy, Gałka oczna, Oko
Norwegian Øye
Spanish Ojos, estructura del ojo (estructura corporal), estructura del ojo, estructura ocular, globo ocular, ojo, Ojo
Portuguese Olhos, Olho
German Auge
Italian Occhio
Dutch Oog

Ontology: Iris (Eye) (C0022077)

Definition (NCI) The colored disc of the eye composed of connective tissue, epithelium, and endothelium. It separates the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The colored tissue at the front of the eye that contains the pupil in the center. The iris helps control the size of the pupil to let more or less light into the eye.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The colored disc of the eye composed of connective tissue, epithelium, and endothelium. It separates the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber. (NCI)
Definition (MSH) The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Definition (CSP) most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior; consists of two layers, the stroma and the pigmented epithelium; color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007498
SnomedCT 41296002
LNC LP30524-0, MTHU015045
English Iris, Iris (Eye), eye iris, iris, iri, EYE, IRIS, Iris structure, Iris structure (body structure), Iris, NOS
Swedish Regnbågshinna
Czech iris, duhovka
Finnish Värikalvo
Russian RADUZHNAIA OBOLOCHKA, RADUZHKA, РАДУЖКА, РАДУЖНАЯ ОБОЛОЧКА
Croatian IRIS
Latvian Varavīksnene
Polish Tęczówka
Norwegian Regnbuehinne, Iris
Spanish estructura del iris (estructura corporal), estructura del iris, iris, Iris
French Iris
German Iris
Italian Iride
Dutch Iris
Portuguese Iris

Ontology: Limbus Corneae (C0085376)

Definition (MSH) An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D016850
SnomedCT 59952002, 63716004
English Corneal Limbus, Corneoscleral Junction, Corneoscleral Junctions, Junction, Corneoscleral, Junctions, Corneoscleral, Limbus Corneae, Limbus, Corneal, Limbus, Sclerocorneal, Sclerocorneal Limbus, Corneoscleral junction, Limbus of cornea, Limbus corneae, Sclerocorneal junction, Corneal limbus, Limbus corneae structure (body structure), Limbus corneae structure, Sclerocorneal junction (body structure), Corneoscleral Limbus
French Limbus de la cornée, Limbe scléro-cornéen, Limbe slérocornéen, Limbe cornéen, Limbe de la cornée
Swedish Hornhinnekant
Czech limbus corneae
Finnish Sarveiskalvon reuna
Russian ROGOVITSY LIMB, SKLEROROGOVICHNYI LIMB, ROGOVICHNOSKLERAL'NYI LIMB, LIMB ROGOVITSY, ЛИМБ РОГОВИЦЫ, РОГОВИЦЫ ЛИМБ, РОГОВИЧНОСКЛЕРАЛЬНЫЙ ЛИМБ, СКЛЕРОРОГОВИЧНЫЙ ЛИМБ
Japanese 角膜縁, 強角膜接合部, 角膜輪部
Italian Giunzione corneosclerale, Limbo sclerocorneale, Limbo corneale, Limbo della cornea
Latvian Radzenes mala
Polish Rąbek rogówki
Norwegian Korneallimbus, Limbus corneae, Hornhinnekant
Spanish estructura del limbo de la córnea (estructura corporal), estructura del limbo de la córnea, limbo de la córnea, unión esclerocorneal (estructura corporal), unión esclerocorneal, Limbo Corneal, Limbo de la Córnea, Limbo Esclercorneal, Unión Esclerocorneal
German Hornhautlimbus, Korneallimbus, Korneoskleralverbindung, Limbus corneae, Sklerokornealer Limbus
Dutch Corneosclerale overgang, Limbus corneae
Portuguese Junção Corneoescleral, Limbo Corneano, Limbo da Córnea, Limbo Esclerocorneano