II. Epidemiology

  1. Acclimatized athletes and laborers at end of work

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Hyponatremia and volume depletion from profuse sweating

IV. Symptoms

  1. Painful muscle contractions or cramps
  2. Increased thirst
  3. Sweating
  4. Tachycardia

V. Signs

  1. Findings of Heat Stroke are absent
    1. Normal mentation and
    2. Core Temperature <104 F

VI. Management

  1. Rest
  2. Oral hydration with electrolyte replacement
  3. Stretching of cramping muscles

VII. Prevention

  1. See Heat Illness Prevention
  2. Prior to work or Exercise:
    1. Adequate Stretching
    2. Adequate water intake
  3. With Exercise (especially longer than 1 hour)
    1. Ingest a drink containing Glucose and Sodium

VIII. References

  1. Czerkawski (1996) Your Patient Fitness 10(4): 13-20
  2. Sandor (1997) Physician SportsMed, 25(6):35-40
  3. Barrow (1998) Am Fam Physician 58(3):749-56 [PubMed]
  4. Hett (1998) Postgrad Med 103(6):107-20 [PubMed]
  5. Wexler (2002) Am Fam Physician 65(11):2307-20 [PubMed]

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Ontology: Heat Cramps (C0085592)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
MSH D018882
ICD9 992.2
ICD10 T67.2
SnomedCT 87108006, 157725005
English Cramp, Heat, Cramps, Heat, Heat Cramp, Effects of heat cramp, heat cramps, heat cramps (diagnosis), Heat cramp, Heat cramps, Heat cramps (disorder), Heat cramp (finding), heat cramp, Heat cramp (disorder), Stokers' cramp, cramp(s); heat, cramp(s); stoker's, heat; cramp(s), stoker's; cramp(s), Heat Cramps
Japanese 熱痙攣, ネツケイレン
Czech křeče z horka, Křeče z horka
French Crampes de chaleur, Crampes dues à la chaleur
German Hitzekrämpfe, Hitzekrampf, Hitzekraempfe
Spanish calambres por calor (trastorno), calambre por calor (hallazgo), calambre por calor, calambre de los fogoneros, Calambres por Calor, calambres por calor, Calambres por calor
Korean 열경련
Portuguese Cãibras devidas ao Calor, Cãibras pelo calor
Hungarian Hőgörcs
Italian Crampi da calore
Norwegian Hetekramper
Dutch hitte; kramp, kramp; hitte, kramp; stoker, stoker; kramp, Hittekramp, hittekrampen, Kramp ten gevolge van oververhitting