II. Pathophysiology

  1. Congenital remnant of Branchial Cleft
  2. Branchial Clefts embyogenesis
    1. Composed of 5 paired arches in lateral foregut wall
    2. Arches are separated by clefts
    3. Clefts usually obliterated with development

III. Types

  1. First Branchial Cleft
    1. Associations
      1. External auditory canal
      2. Parotid Gland
  2. Second Branchial Cleft
    1. Associations
      1. Superior pole of Tonsil
    2. Location
      1. Anterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle
    3. Course
      1. Between internal and external carotid arteries
      2. Opens into Tonsillar fossa
  3. Third Branchial Cleft
    1. Associations
      1. Pyriform Sinus
    2. Location
      1. Anterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle
    3. Course
      1. Posterior to common Carotid Artery
      2. Opens in Pyriform sinus

IV. Signs

  1. Lateral Neck Mass in distribution as above
    1. Most common at anterior border of sternocleidomastoid
    2. Sinus communicates fully between skin and airway
  2. May present with infection

V. Complications

  1. Secondary infection with neck abscess
  2. Branchial Cleft Cyst wall carcinoma (rare)

VII. Radiology

  1. CT Neck
  2. Fistulogram

VIII. Management

  1. Surgical Excision of cyst and sinus tract

IX. References

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Ontology: Branchioma (C0006131)

Definition (MSH) A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D001935
ICD9 744.42
SnomedCT 42362005, 59857007
English Branchial Cyst, Branchioma, Branchiomas, Cysts, Branchial, Branchial Cleft Cyst, Branchial Cleft Cysts, Cleft Cyst, Branchial, Cleft Cysts, Branchial, Cyst, Branchial, Cyst, Branchial Cleft, Cysts, Branchial Cleft, Branchial cleft cysts, BRANCHIAL CYSTS, branchial cyst, branchial cyst (diagnosis), Branchioma [Disease/Finding], branchial cleft cyst, Cyst;branchial, cyst branchial cleft, branchial cysts, branchial cleft cysts, Branchial Cysts, Branchial cleft cyst, Branchial cyst, Cyst of branchial cleft, Branchial cleft cyst (disorder), Branchioma (morphologic abnormality), branchial cleft; cyst, cyst; branchial cleft, Cyst of Branchial Cleft, Cyst of the Branchial Cleft
French Branchiome, Kyste branchial, Kyste de la fente branchiale, Kystes branchiaux
Swedish Brankiom
Japanese サイセイノウホウ, 鰓管嚢胞, 鰓腫, 鰓裂嚢腫, サイレツノウシュ, リンパ上皮性嚢胞, 側頸嚢胞, 側頸嚢胞腫, 鰓原性嚢胞, 鰓嚢胞, 鰓嚢腫, 鰓性のう胞, 鰓性嚢胞, 鰓性嚢腫, 鰓溝嚢胞, 鰓裂嚢胞
Czech branchiom, Branchiální cysta, cysta branchiální štěrbiny, branchiální cysta, Cysta branchiální štěrbiny
Finnish Brankiooma
Italian Cisti della fessura branchiale, Cisti branchiale, Cisti brachiale bifida, Epitelioma branchiale
Russian BRANKHIOMA, KISTA SHEI BOKOVAIA, ZHABERNAIA KISTA, БРАНХИОМА, ЖАБЕРНАЯ КИСТА, КИСТА ШЕИ БОКОВАЯ
Polish Torbiel skrzelopochodna, Torbiel boczna szyi
Hungarian Branchialis cysta, Branchialis hasadék cysta
Dutch kieuwspleetcyste, cyste; kieuwspleet, kieuwspleet; cyste, kieuwachtige cyste, Branchiogene cyste, Branchiogene tumor, Branchioom, Kieuwspleetcyste
German Kiemengangzyste, branchiogene Zyste, Branchiogene Zyste, Branchiom, Kiemengangszyste
Portuguese Quisto de fenda branquial, Quisto branquial, Branquioma, Cisto Branquial, Cisto de Fenda Branquial
Spanish Quiste de la hendidura branquial, branquioma (anomalía morfológica), branquioma, quiste branquial, quiste de la hendidura branquial (trastorno), quiste de la hendidura branquial, Quiste branquial, Branquioma, Quiste Branquial Fisurado, Quiste Branquial
Norwegian Brankiom, Lateral halscyste

Ontology: Sinus of branchial cleft (disorder) (C0266624)

Concepts Congenital Abnormality (T019) , Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 204264005, 7445000, 253259008
Italian Seno branchiale
English Sinus of branchial cleft (disorder), branchial cleft sinus, branchial vestiges, branchial cleft sinus (diagnosis), Branchial cleft sinus (disorder), Branchial cleft sinus, Sinus of branchial cleft, branchial; sinus, sinus; branchial, Branchial cleft sinus (disorder) [Ambiguous], Branchial sinus
Japanese 鰓裂洞, サイレツドウ
Czech Sinus branchiální štěrbiny
Hungarian Branchialis hasadék sinus
Spanish seno hendido branquial, seno hendido branquial (trastorno), seno de fístula branquial (trastorno), seno de fístula branquial, seno hendido branquial (concepto no activo), Seno de la hendidura branquial
Dutch branchiaal; sinus, sinus; branchiaal, kieuwspleetsinus
Portuguese Seio de fenda branquial
French Sinus de la fente branchiale
German Kiemengangfistel

Ontology: Branchial Clefts (C1280559)

Concepts Embryonic Structure (T018)
MSH D001934
SnomedCT 204264005, 258032009, 68959004
English Clefts, Branchial, Branchial Cleft, Cleft, Branchial, Branchial Clefts, Pharyngeal Grooves, Groove, Pharyngeal, Pharyngeal Clefts, Branchial Grooves, Grooves, Pharyngeal, Clefts, Pharyngeal, Branchial Groove, Groove, Branchial, Grooves, Branchial, Cleft, Pharyngeal, Pharyngeal Cleft, branchial cleft, branchial clefting, branchial clefts, Branchial cleft, branchial; cleft, cleft; branchial, Branchial cleft, NOS, Branchial cleft (body structure), Branchial cleft (morphologic abnormality), Pharyngeal Groove
Spanish hendidura branquial (estructura corporal), Hendidura Branquial, hendidura branquial, hendidura branquial (anomalía morfológica)
Portuguese Fendas Branquiais
French Fentes branchiales, Fentes pharyngiennes
German Kiemenspalten
Norwegian Gjellespalter, Svelgspalter
Italian Fessure branchiali, Tasche branchiali
Dutch branchiale structuur; gespleten, gespleten; branchiale structuur